, Volume 96, Issue 1, pp 53–65 | Cite as

A coordinated view of the temporal evolution of large-scale Internet events

  • Alistair King
  • Bradley Huffaker
  • Alberto DainottiEmail author
  • k. c. Claffy


We present a method to visualize large-scale Internet events, such as a large region losing connectivity, or a stealth probe of the entire IPv4 address space. We apply a well-known technique in information visualization—multiple coordinated views—to Internet-specific data. We animate these coordinated views to study the temporal evolution of an event along different dimensions, including geographic spread, topological (address space) coverage, and traffic impact. We explain the techniques we used to create the visualization, and using two recent case studies we describe how this capability to simultaneously view multiple dimensions of events enabled greater insight into their properties.


Visualization Measurement methodology Security Software tools Darknet Outages 

Mathematics Subject Classification




Support for the UCSD network telescope operations and data collection, curation, analysis, and sharing is provided by DHS S&T NBCHC070133, NSF CNS-1059439. The author’s efforts on this project were supported by DHS S&T NBCHCO70133 (KC), NSF CNS-1059439 and NSF CNS-1228994.


  1. 1.
    AfriNIC. The Registry of Internet Number Resources for Africa (2012)
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Gd graphics library (2012)
  4. 4.
    MaxMind GeoLite Country (2012)
  5. 5.
    OpenStreetMap (2012)
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Brown J, McGregor A, Braun H-W (2000) Network performance visualization: insight through animation. In: Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Workshop, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Dainotti A, King A, Claffy K, Papale F, Pescapé A (2012) Analysis of a “/0” Stealth Scan from a Botnet. In: ACM Internet Measurement Conference, BostonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dainotti A, Squarcella C, Aben E, Claffy KC, Chiesa M, Russo M, Pescapé (2011) A Analysis of country-wide internet outages caused by censorship. In: ACM SIGCOMM Internet measurement conference, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duane Wessels (2009) Gallery of IPv4 Heat Maps.
  12. 12.
    Duane Wessels (2009) IPv4 Heatmap tool.
  13. 13.
    Fuller V (2006) Li T RFC 4632 (Best current practice)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heidemann J, Pradkin Y, Govindan R, Papadopoulos C, Bartlett G, Bannister J (2008) Census and survey of the visible internet. In: ACM SIGCOMM Internet measurement Conference, VouliagmeniGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huffaker B, Fomenkov M, Claffy kc (2011) Geocompare: a comparison of public and commercial geolocation databases. In: Network Mapping and Measurement Conference (NMMC).
  16. 16.
    Huffaker B, Jung J, Wessels D, Claffy k (1998) Visualization of the growth and topology of the NLANR caching hierarchy. In: 3rd International WWW Caching Workshop, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lamm S, Reed D, Scullin W (1996) Real-time geographic visualization of world wide web traffic. In: Proceedings of Fifth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW5), Paris, pp 1457–1468Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Munroe R (2006) xkcd: MAP of the INTERNET.
  19. 19.
    Munzner T, Hoffman E, Claffy k, Fenner B (1996) Visualizing the global topology of the MBone. In: IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oberheide J, Goff M, Karir M (2006) Flamingo: visualizing internet traffic. In: Network Operations and Management Symposium. NOMS 2006. 10th IEEE/IFIP, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Papadakakis N, Markatos E, Palantir AP (1998) A visualization tool for the world wide web. In: INET’98 Proceedings, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Shannon AN, Spires V (2003) Exhaustive search system and method using space-filling curves. Patent, 10 2003. US 6636847Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shirley P, Marschner S (2009) Fundamentals of computer graphics, 3rd edn. A.K Peters Ltd, WellesleyGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thompson K, Miller GJ, Wilder R (1997) Wide-area internet traffic patterns and characteristics. IEEE Netw Mag 11(6):10–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Baldonado MQ, Woodruff A, Kuchinsky A (2000) Guidelines for using multiple views in information visualization. In: Conference on Advanced visual interfaces, AVI ’00. ACM, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alistair King
    • 1
  • Bradley Huffaker
    • 1
  • Alberto Dainotti
    • 1
    Email author
  • k. c. Claffy
    • 1
  1. 1.CAIDAUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations