Computing

, Volume 96, Issue 2, pp 119–131 | Cite as

An energy-efficient geographic routing protocol design in vehicular ad-hoc network

  • Jian-Ming Chang
  • Chin-Feng Lai
  • Han-Chieh Chao
  • Rongbo Zhu
Article

Abstract

The combination of vehicles and wireless communication has resulted in a promising future for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The VANET is a kind of network that can be built randomly, quickly and temporarily without any infrastructure. The routing of data in a VANET is a challenging task due to the high dynamics, unstable connection environments and transfer direction limit (real road planning) involved. However, it has been discussed that radio obstacles, as found in urban areas, have a significant negative impact on the performance of location based routing. Therefore, the design of a suitable routing protocol for VANETs is an important issue, especially in regard to inter-vehicle communication applications. This paper proposes a energy-efficient geographic routing algorithm that uses the direction, density and distance between nodes in the crossroad routing strategy, to improve the link stability. We compare the novel scheme, ad hoc on-demand distance vector, and dynamic source routing (DSR) for packet loss rate and average end-to-end delay in VANETs to reduce the power consumptions. The simulation results are obtained which demonstrate the power effectiveness of our proposed routing strategy.

Keywords

VANETs Geographic routing algorithm Inter-vehicle communication Energy-efficient 

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)

68M10 68M12 

References

  1. 1.
    CarTALK2000 (2012). http://www.cvisproject.org/en/links/cartalk_2000.htm. Accessed 8 Nov 2012
  2. 2.
    Vintage Sports-Car Club (VSCC) (2012). http://www.vscc.co.uk/vsccweb/. Accessed 8 Nov 2012
  3. 3.
    Viriyasitavat W, Bai F, Tonguz OK (2011) Dynamics of network connectivity in urban vehicular networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 29(3):515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cardote A, Sargento S, Steenkiste P (2010) On the connection availability between relay nodes in a VANET. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference, pp 181–185Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu CL, Wang CY, Wei HY (2010) Cross-layer mobile chord P2P protocol design for VANET. Int J Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Comput 6(3):150–163Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saleet H, Basir O, Langar R, Boutaba R (2010) Region-based location-service-management protocol for VANETs. IEEE Transact Veh Technol 59(2):917–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Obaidat MS, Dhurandher SK, Jindal P, Chavli R, Valecha S (2010) PMH: a stability based predictive multi-hop routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks. J Internet Technol 11(4):437–449Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li L, Sun L (2010) Seer: trend-prediction-based geographic message forwarding in sparse vehicular networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications May 2010, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang JM, Chao HC, Chen JL (2010) A dead end avoidance method for geographic forwarding in MANETs. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, pp 880–884Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liao WH, Sheu JP, Tseng YC (2001) GRID: a fully location-aware routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Telecommun Syst 18(1–3):37–60CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Rabayah M, Malaney R (2010) A new hybrid location-based Ad Hoc routing protocol. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference 2010, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dumitrescu V, Guo J (2005) Context assisted routing protocols for inter-vehicle wireless communication. In: Proceedings of IEEE Intelligent Vehicles, Symposium, pp 594–600Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sommer C, German R, Dressler F (2011) Bidirectionally coupled network and road traffic simulation for improved IVC analysis. IEEE Transact Mobile Comput 10(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Namboodiri V, Gao L (2007) Prediction-based routing for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Transact Vehicular Technol 56(4):2332–2345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dhurandher SK, Misra S, Obaidat MS, Gupta M, Diwakar K, Gupta P (2010) Efficient angular routing protocol for inter-vehicular communication in vehicular ad hoc networks. IET Commun 4(7):826–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee KC, Lee U, Gerla M (2007) Survey of routing protocols in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Transact Vehicular Technol 56(6):3337V3347Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taleb T, Sakhaee E, Jamalipour A, Hashimoto K, Kato N, Nemoto Y (2007) A stable routing protocol to support ITS services in VANET networks. IEEE Transact Vehicular Technol 56(6):3337–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sakhaee E, Taleb T, Jamalipour A, Kato N, Nemoto Y (2007) A novel scheme to reduce control overhead and increase link duration in highly mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE, Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, pp 3972–3977Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang CJ, Chuang YT, Yang DX (2008) Adaptive QoS-aware inter-vehicle routing in vehicular networks. J Internet Technol 9(3):289–295Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jerbi M, Senouci SM, Meraihi R, Ghamri-Doudane Y (2007) An improved vehicular ad hoc routing protocol for city environments. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on, Communication, pp. 3972–3979Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang Y, Wang L, An JW, Yang YL, Chen WL (2010) A node decision routing protocol based on datagram features in vehicular ad hoc networks. J Internet Technol 11(1):95–102Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian-Ming Chang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chin-Feng Lai
    • 3
  • Han-Chieh Chao
    • 3
  • Rongbo Zhu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Dong Hwa UniversityHualienTaiwan
  2. 2.Chung Shan Institute of Science and TechnologyTaoYuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Institute of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Ilan UniversityIlanTaiwan
  4. 4.Hubei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Wireless Communications, College of Computer ScienceSouth-Central University for NationalitiesWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations