, Volume 94, Issue 12, pp 973–994 | Cite as

Energy-efficient data centers

  • Junaid Shuja
  • Sajjad A. Madani
  • Kashif Bilal
  • Khizar HayatEmail author
  • Samee U. Khan
  • Shahzad Sarwar


Energy consumption of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has grown exponentially in recent years. A major component of the today’s ICT is constituted by the data centers which have experienced an unprecedented growth in their size and population, recently. The Internet giants like Google, IBM and Microsoft house large data centers for cloud computing and application hosting. Many studies, on energy consumption of data centers, point out to the need to evolve strategies for energy efficiency. Due to large-scale carbon dioxide (\(\mathrm{CO}_2\)) emissions, in the process of electricity production, the ICT facilities are indirectly responsible for considerable amounts of green house gas emissions. Heat generated by these densely populated data centers needs large cooling units to keep temperatures within the operational range. These cooling units, obviously, escalate the total energy consumption and have their own carbon footprint. In this survey, we discuss various aspects of the energy efficiency in data centers with the added emphasis on its motivation for data centers. In addition, we discuss various research ideas, industry adopted techniques and the issues that need our immediate attention in the context of energy efficiency in data centers.


Energy efficiency Data centers Causal data 

Mathematics Subject Classification



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junaid Shuja
    • 1
  • Sajjad A. Madani
    • 1
  • Kashif Bilal
    • 2
  • Khizar Hayat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samee U. Khan
    • 2
  • Shahzad Sarwar
    • 3
  1. 1.COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT)AbbottabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  3. 3.Punjab University College of IT (PUCIT)The University of PunjabLahorePakistan

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