Multiple origins of Southern Hemisphere Anemone (Ranunculaceae) based on plastid and nuclear sequence data
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Using two molecular data sets, the plastid atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer region and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), the taxonomic affinities of two newly available Anemone species from the Southern Hemisphere were tested. From previous work based on morphology and geographic distribution, it was assumed that A. tenuicaulis from New Zealand was most closely related to the Tasmanian A. crassifolia, whereas the affinity of A. antucensis from Chile and Argentina was regarded as uncertain. Analyses of molecular sequence data from these and 18 other species of Anemone s.lat. (with Clematis as outgroup) result in trees largely congruent with past analyses based on morphology and plastid restriction site data. They strongly support A. richardsonii and A. canadensis (with boreal distributions in the Northern Hemisphere) as paraphyletic to a well supported Southern Hemisphere clade consisting of A. antucensis and A. tenuicaulis. This group of four species is part of an otherwise predominantly Northern Hemisphere assemblage (subgenus Anemonidium s.lat., chromosome base number x=7), including A. narcissiflora, A. obtusiloba, A. keiskeana and A. (=Hepatica) americana. All other austral species included in the present sampling, A. crassifolia (Tasmania), A. knowltonia (=Knowltonia capensis), and A. caffra (both South African), form a separate clade, sister to A. (=Pulsatilla) occidentalis and other Northern Hemisphere anemones (subgenus Anemone s.lat., x=8). Possible phytogeographical links of the Southern Hemisphere species are discussed.
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