Comparative reproductive biology reveals two distinct pollination strategies in Neotropical twig-epiphyte orchids

  • Emerson R. Pansarin
  • Pedro J. Bergamo
  • Lucenilda J. C. Ferraz
  • Silvia R. M. Pedro
  • Alessandro W. C. Ferreira
Original Article
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

Members of Oncidiinae are widely known for their interactions with oil-collecting bees that explore lipophilic secretions on flowers. They may also be pollinated through food deception and the offering of nectar. Although data on breeding systems are available for many Oncidiinae orchids, little is known about the reproductive strategies in Rodriguezia, a neotropical genus of ca. 55 species. In this paper, we explore the reproductive biology of two species of Rodriguezia with distinctive morphologies: R. decora and R. lanceolata. Floral features, spectral reflectance, pollinators and pollination mechanisms, and breeding systems were studied. Both species are scentless and produce nectar as a reward. Floral nectar is secreted by a gland at the base of the labellum and stored into the sepaline spur. Rodriguezia decora reflects mainly in the blue and red regions of the light spectrum, while R. lanceolata reflects in the red region. Rodriguezia decora is exclusively visited and pollinated by butterflies, while Trochilidae hummingbirds are the pollinators of R. lanceolata. Pollinaria attach to the upper third of the proboscis of butterflies (R. decora), and to the bill of hummingbirds (R. lanceolata), during the collection of nectar from the spur. Both Rodriguezia species are self-sterile. Flower features and floral reflectance support the occurrence of psychophily in R. decora and ornithophily in R. lanceolata.

Keywords

Floral biology Nectar Ornithophily Pollination Psychophily Reproductive biology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank André V.L. Freitas (UNICAMP) for the identification of the butterflies. A.W.C.F. thanks FAPEMA for funding this research (grant 0430/2015).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emerson R. Pansarin
    • 1
  • Pedro J. Bergamo
    • 2
  • Lucenilda J. C. Ferraz
    • 3
  • Silvia R. M. Pedro
    • 1
  • Alessandro W. C. Ferreira
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e LetrasUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.University of CampinasCampinasBrazil
  3. 3.Centro Universitário de PinheiroUniversidade Federal do MaranhãoPinheiroBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade Federal do MaranhãoSão LuísBrazil

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