Small genome size variation across the range of European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
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Interpopulation variation of relative and absolute genome size was studied in Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica and subsp. orientalis. The study included 18 populations of beech planted in a common-garden experiment in central Slovakia and three additional populations from the Caucasus. Nuclear DNA content was determined by means of flow cytometry using the AT-specific fluorochrome 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and non-specific propidium iodide, and its associations with climate, growth, phenology and physiological traits were assessed. The approximate average nuclear DNA content (2C) across all samples was 1.178 ± 0.020 pg. The lowest mean relative genome sizes were observed in the Alpine range, whereas they increased toward the range margins; no clear trend was observed for 2C values. Temperature seasonality and temperature annual range were found to be negatively associated with genome size. Among phenotypic traits, the maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) was found to be negatively correlated with relative genome size, whereas phenology and some photosynthetic parameters were correlated with the 2C values.
KeywordsC-value DNA content Fagaceae Flow cytometry Genome size Provenance trial
The provenance experiment was established under the auspices of the Institute of Forest Genetics (Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute) in Grosshansdorf, Germany, and measurements were done within the COST Action E52 coordinated by G. von Wühlisch. We thank B. Kehrer (Hochschule Geisenheim) for laboratory support. Physiological measurements were done by Ľ. Ditmarová, D. Kurjak, J. Majerová, E. Pšidová and G. Jamnická. The study was supported by research grants of the Slovak Research and Development Agency APVV-0135-12, Slovak Grant Agency for Science VEGA 1/0269/16 and internal funds of the Senckenberg Research Institute.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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