Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 304, Issue 4, pp 535–548 | Cite as

Pollen morphology in delimiting subgenera and species of the genus Cybianthus s.l. (Myrsinoideae–Primulaceae)

  • Ana C. da Silva Fourny
  • Tatiana T. Carrijo
  • Cláudia B. F. Mendonça
  • Vania Gonçalves-Esteves
Original Article


Pollen grains of species of the subgenera of Cybianthus s.l. were analyzed in order to determine if pollen morphology is consistent with the currently accepted infrageneric classification, and if it can provide characters useful for distinguishing species or groups of species. Acetolyzed pollen grains were analyzed, measured, described and photomicrographed, while non-acetolyzed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains of all species investigated were isopolar monads, small- to medium-sized, subprolate or prolate, 3-colporate, and rugulate or rugulate-perforate. The different analytical methods (statistical analyses, exploratory analysis of the data and cluster analysis) used demonstrated that pollen morphology is informative in delimiting this genus. However, the pollen characters are generally quite uniform among the subgenres of Cybianthus s.l. Thus, the use of the pollen attributes in the separation of the subordinate species to different subgenera is not effective. Pollen morphology did not give support to current subgeneric systematics, but it did support the genus Cybianthus s.l.


Cybianthus Palynology Primulaceae Systematics Taxonomy 



We are grateful to technic of the Department of Invertebrates of the National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, for providing technical assistance with the scanning electron microscopy. This study received financial support from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) and from the Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Agostini G (1971) A revision of the genus Cybianthus subgenus Conomorpha (Myrsinaceae). PhD Thesis, University of New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Agostini G (1980) Uma nueva clasificación del género Cybianthus (Myrsinaceae). Acta Biol Venez 10:129–185Google Scholar
  3. Anderberg AA, Ståhl B, Källersjö M (2000) Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l. Taxon 49:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 161:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. APG IV (2016) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 181:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caccavari MA, Naab OA, Tamame MA (2008) Palynological and physicochemical characteristics of three unifloral honey types from central Argentina. Span J Agric Res 6:566–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrijo TT, Fourny ACS, Freitas MF, Gonçalves-Esteves V, Peixoto AL (2011) Insights on Ardisia and Stylogyne (Myrsinoideae-Primulaceae) based on pollen morphology. Pl Syst Evol 297:261–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrijo TT, Garbin ML, Leite WP, Mendonça CBF, Esteves RL, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2013) Pollen morphology of some related genera of Vernonieae (Asteraceae) and its taxonomic significance. Pl Syst Evol 299:1275–1283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carrion JS, Delgado MJ, Garcia M (1993) Pollen grain morphology of Coris (Primulaceae). Pl Syst Evol 184:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Candolle MA (1834) Revue de La famille dês Myrsineés. Ann Sci Nat 2:285–301Google Scholar
  11. De Candolle A (1844) Prodromus Systematica Naturalis regni vegetabilis, 8th edn. Sumptibus Sociorum Treuttel et Würtz, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. Erdtman G (1952) Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy-Angiosperms. Almqvist & Wiksel, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  13. Erdtman G (1960) The acetolysis method. A revised description. Svensk Bot Tidsk 54:561–564Google Scholar
  14. Fonnegra-Gómez RJ (1986) Palinologia da família Myrsinaceae R. Br. no Brasil. PhD Thesis, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  15. Freitas MF, Carrijo TT (2008) A família Myrsinaceae nos contrafortes do Maciço da Tijuca e contrafortes do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rodriguesia 59:813–828Google Scholar
  16. Freitas MF, Carrijo TT, Kinoshita LS (2009) Flora da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais: Myrsinaceae. Bol Inst Bot (São Paulo) 27: 259–267. Google Scholar
  17. Jung-Mendaçolli SL, Bernacci LC (1997) Flora Fanerogâmica da Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brasil): Myrsinaceae. In: Melo MMRF, Barros F, Chiea SAC, Kirizawa M, Jung-Mendaçolli SL, Wanderley MGL (eds) Flora Fanerogâmica da Ilha do Cardoso. Imprensa Oficial, São Paulo, pp 81–98Google Scholar
  18. Jung-Mendaçolli SL, Bernacci LC (2001) Myrsinaceae da APA do Cairúçu, Parati. Rodriguésia 52:49–64. Google Scholar
  19. Jung-Mendaçolli, SL, Bernarcci LC, Freitas MF (2005) Myrsinaceae. In: Wanderley MGL, Shepherd GJ, Melhem TS, Giulietti AM (eds) Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo vol 4, pp 279–300Google Scholar
  20. Martius CFM (1829) Nova Genera et Species Plantarum, vol. 3. MuniqueGoogle Scholar
  21. McCune B, Mefford MJ (2011) PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 6. MjM Software, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  22. Melhem TS, Cruz-Barros MAV, Corrêa AMS, Makino Watanabe H, Silvestre-Capelato MS, Esteves VLG (2003) Morfologia polínica em plantas de Campos do Jordão (São Paulo, Brasil). Bol Inst Bot (São Paulo) 16:1–104Google Scholar
  23. Mez C (1902) Myrsinaceae. Das Planzenreich 9:1–437Google Scholar
  24. Mezzonato-Pires AC, Mendonça CBF, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2015) Pollen morphology of selected species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) from the Atlantic Forest. Acta Bot Brasil 29:391–399. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miquel FAG (1856) Myrsineae. In: Martius, CFP, Eichler AW, Urban IP (eds) Flora Brasiliensis, vol. 10. Apud Frid. Flizcher in Comm., LipsiaeGoogle Scholar
  26. Nowicke JW, Skvarla JJ (1979) Pollen morphology and the relationship of the Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Primulaceae to the order Centrospermae. Smithsonian Contr Bot 37:1–64Google Scholar
  27. Pipoly JJ (1981) Contributions toward a monograph of Cybianthus (Myrsinaceae): I. subgenus Iteoides and the identity of Conomorpha loretensis. Brittonia 33:493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pipoly JJ (1983) Contributions toward monograph of Cybianthus (Myrsinaceae): III. A revision of subgenus Laxiflorus. Brittonia 35:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pipoly JJ (1987) A systematic revision of the genus Cybiantus subgenus Grammadenia (Myrsinaceae). Mem New York Bot Gard 43:1–76Google Scholar
  30. Pipoly JJ (1992) The Genus Cybianthus subgenus Conomorpha (Myrsinaceae) in Guayana. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 79:908–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pipoly JJ, Ricketson JM (1997) Myrsinaceae. In. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  32. Punt W, Blackmore S, Nilsson S, Le Thomas A (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore. Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 143:1–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roubik DW, Moreno JE (1991) Pollen and spores of Barro Colorado Island. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 36:1–270Google Scholar
  34. Salgado-Labouriau ML (1973) Contribuição à Palinologia dos Cerrados. An Acad Bras Ciênc, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  35. Souza MA, Mendonça CBF, Esteves RL, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2016) Pollen morphology of species of Graphistylis B. Nord. (Asteraceae) of Brazil. Acta Bot Brasil 30:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Souza-Souza RMB, Loeuille B, Mendonça CBF, Esteves RL, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2016) Pollen morphology of the genus Paralychnophora (Vernonieae-Asteraceae). Palynology 40:280–288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stähl B, Anderberg AA (1996) Myrsinaceae. In: Kubitzki K (ed) Vol. VI flowering plants Dicotyledons: Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Bot J Linn Soc 122: 315–333Google Scholar
  38. Thiers B (2013) Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Available at:
  39. Tuler A, Silva T, Carrijo T, Garbin ML, Mendonça CBF, Peixoto AL, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2017) Taxonomic significance of pollen morphology for species delimitation in Psidium (Myrtaceae). Pl Syst Evol 303:317–327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Valenti-Rull V (2003) An illustrated key for the identification of pollen from Pantepui and the Gran Sabana (eastern Venezuelan Guayana). Palynology 27:99–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vignoli-Silva M, Batista-Franklim CPR, Correa DSM, Mentz LA, Mendonça CBF, Gonçalves-Esteves V (2015) Pollen diversity in Cestrum L. (Solanaceae) from extra- Amazonian Brazil. Palynology 39:76–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Museu Nacional, Laboratório de PalinologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Botânica, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da SaúdeUniversidade Federal do Espírito SantoAlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations