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Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of representatives of the Thyrsacanthus clade (Acanthaceae)

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Abstract

The Thyrsacanthus clade belongs to the Tetramerium lineage (Justicieae–Acanthaceae) and possesses 12 species distributed among dry forests of South America and Mexico. The sporoderm of the pollen grains of seven species of the clade were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The pollen grains are of the 3-colporate, 6-pseudocolpate type. The exine is heterobrochate reticulate, except in Thyrsacanthus microphyllus, which possesses a perforated exine with granules distributed in a reticulated manner. The membrane of the ectoaperture and pseudoaperture are ornamented with granules, and the membrane of the endoaperture is microechinate, with the exception of Schaueria humuliflora, which possesses microechinate ecto- and endoapertures. The ultrastructure of the ectexine is semitectate or tectate perforated in T. microphyllus, with simple and/or digitate columellae. The species of the clade possess pollenkitt on the tectum and in the infratectal cavity between the columellae. The endexine consists of one or two layers. The intine is irregular and well developed under the apertures. The information provided by this study reveals important data regarding the structure of the sporoderm of the pollen grains of representatives of the Thyrsacanthus clade, and thus of Acanthaceae.

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Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the Masters scholarship awarded to the first author; the Botany Graduate Program; the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support; the Gonçalo Muniz Research Center at the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) for allowing the electron microscopy analyses; the curators of the herbaria of the State University of Feira de Santana (HUEFS), the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), and the University of São Paulo Herbarium (SFP) for providing the botanical material from which the pollen grains were collected; and lastly, the Plant Micromorphology Laboratory (LAMIV) from the University of Feira de Santana and the Laboratory of Palynological Studies from the State University of Bahia — Campus VI for allowing use of their facilities.

Funding

The author Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos receives CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) research productivity Grant (303862/2013-0). The author Lorena Malheiros Costa Silva received master grant from CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) to develop this research.

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Correspondence to Lorena M. C. Silva.

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Handling editor: Louis P. Ronse De Craene.

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Silva, L.M., de Borges, R.L., Côrtes, A.L.A. et al. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of representatives of the Thyrsacanthus clade (Acanthaceae). Plant Syst Evol 303, 1341–1349 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-017-1465-0

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