Terpene synthase genes in Melaleuca alternifolia: comparative analysis of lineage-specific subfamily variation within Myrtaceae
- 149 Downloads
Terpenes are a multifarious group of secondary compounds present throughout the living world that function primarily in defence, or otherwise in regulating interactions between an organism and its environment. Terpene synthases (TPS) are a mid-sized gene family whose diversity and make-up reflects a plant’s ecological requirements and unique adaptive history. Here we catalogue TPS in Melaleuca alternifolia and examine lineage-specific expansion in TPS relative to other sequenced Myrtaceae. Overall, far fewer (37) putative TPS genes were identified in M. alternifolia compared with Eucalyptus grandis (113) and E. globulus (106). The number of genes in clade TPS-b1 (12), which encode enzymes that produce cyclic monoterpenes, was proportionally larger in M. alternifolia than in any other well-characterised plant. Relative to E. grandis, the isoprene-/ocimene-producing TPS-b2 clade in M. alternifolia tended to be proportionally smaller. This suggested there may be lineage-specific subfamily change in Melaleuca relative to other sequenced Myrtaceae, perhaps as a consequence of its semi-aquatic evolutionary history.
KeywordsCorymbia Eucalyptus Monoterpene Tea tree
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of R. Wood, A. Kawamata and J. Bloomfield and T. Rhodes for his help in the laboratory. Jed Calvert would also like to thank Shirali, for her constant support and supply of fresh perspectives. This work was supported by the Australian Research Council (Grant No. DP140102552).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Andrews S (2015) FastQC: A quality control tool for high throughput sequence data. Available at: http://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/fastqc/. Accessed 14 May 2016
- Baker G (1999) Tea tree breeding. In: Southwell I, Lowe R (eds) Tea tree: the genus Melaleuca. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 135–154Google Scholar
- Barlow BA (1988) Patterns of differentiation in tropical species of Melaleuca L. (Myrtaceae), pp. 239–247 in The ecology of Australia’s wet tropics: proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Queensland. In: R. L. Kitching. Surrey Beatty & Sons for Ecol Soc Aust procite:01edfb08-aef9-4a6f-bf47-0127cb4ffcdeGoogle Scholar
- Dereeper A, Guignon V, Blanc G, Audic S, Buffet S, Chevenet F, Dufayard JF, Guindon S, Lefort V, Lescot M, Claverie JM, Gascuel O (2008) Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucl Acids Res 36(Web Server issue):W465–W469. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn180 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Herde M, Gärtner K, Köllner TG, Fode B, Boland W, Gershenzon J, Tholl D (2008) Identification and regulation of TPS04/GES, an Arabidopsis geranyllinalool synthase catalyzing the first step in the formation of the insect-induced volatile C16-homoterpene TMTT. Pl Cell 20:1152–1168. doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.049478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Keszei A, Webb H, Kulheim C, Foley W (2010b) Genetic tools for improving tea tree oils. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, BartonGoogle Scholar
- Navia-Giné WG, Yuan JS, Mauromoustakos A, Murphy JB, Chen F, Korth KL (2009) Medicago truncatula (E)-β-ocimene synthase is induced by insect herbivory with corresponding increases in emission of volatile ocimene. Pl Physiol Biochem 47:416–425. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pierce BA (2012) Genetics: a conceptual approach, 4th edn. WH Freeman/Macmillan, SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Rambaut A (2014) Figtree: molecular evolution, phylogenetics and epidemiology. Available at: http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/. Accessed 2 May 2017
- Shimoda T, Nishihara M, Ozawa R, Takabayashi J, Arimura GI (2012) The effect of genetically enriched (E)-β-ocimene and the role of floral scent in the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatile blends of torenia. New Phytol 193:1009–1021. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04018.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Silva SM, Abe SY, Murakami FS, Frensch G, Marques FA, Nakashima T (2011) Essential oils from different plant parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth.(Myrtaceae) as a source of 1, 8-cineole and their bioactivities. Pharmaceuticals 4:1535–1550. doi: 10.3390/ph4121535 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Simão FA, Waterhouse RM, Ioannidis P, Kriventseva EV, Zdobnov EM (2015) BUSCO: assessing genome assembly and annotation completeness with single-copy orthologs. Bioinformatics 31:3210–3212. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btv351
- Steele CL, Crock J, Bohlmann J, Croteau R (1998) Sesquiterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis) comparison of constitutive and wound-induced activities, and cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of δ-selinene synthase and γ-humulene synthase. J Biol Chem 273:2078–2089. doi: 10.1074/jbc.273.4.2078 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar