Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 304, Issue 1, pp 93–110 | Cite as

Synopsis of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) of West Tropical Africa, including Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe

  • José M. CardielEmail author
  • Iris Montero Muñoz
Original Article


This work features a critical review of the Acalypha species of the West Tropical Africa, including Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. As a result, 15 native species, and four that appear to be naturalized, are accepted, and 17 names are considered as synonyms. Comprehensive nomenclatural information is supplied, and nine lectotypes and one neotype are designated. An identification key is also provided, as well as two original illustrations.


Acalypha Euphorbiaceae Malpighiales Typification West Tropical Africa 



We kindly thank the curators and staff of the aforementioned herbaria for facilitating the study of their specimens, especially thanks to Caroline Loup, Bruno Wallnöfer, Gill Challen, Maria Peña Chocarro, Laurent Gautier, and Robert Vogt, of the P, W, K, BM, G, and B herbaria, respectively, for their kindness and efficiency. We also thank to the anonymous reviewers, for his deep inspection of the manuscript and for the helpful comments provided.


This study was funded by Spanish Government, through the research project EUI 2008-0388, and by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) and the Regional Government (Comunidad de Madrid), through the research project CCG07-UAM/AMB-1453. This research also received support from the SYNTHESYS Project which is financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adam JG (1962) Itinéraires botaniques en Afrique occidentale, Flore et Végétation d’hiver de la Mauritanie Occidentale, Les Pâturages, Inventaire des plantes signalées en Mauritanie (Suite et fin). J Agric Trop Bot Appl 9:297–416Google Scholar
  2. Adam JG (1971) Flore descriptive des monts Nimba. Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat B Bot 20:205–232Google Scholar
  3. Agnew ADQ, Agnew S (1994) Upland Kenya wild flowers: a flora of the ferns and herbaceous flowering plants of upland Kenya, 2nd edn. East Africa Natural History Society, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  4. Akoègninou A, van der Burg WJ, van der Maesen LJG (2006) Flore analytique du Bénin. Backhuys Publishers, CotonouGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews FW (1952) The flowering plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: Sterculiaceae to Dipsacaceae. Published for the Sudan Govt by T Buncle, ArbroathGoogle Scholar
  6. Archer RH (1993) Euphorbiaceae. In: Arnold TH, de Wet BC (eds) Plants of Southern Africa: names and distribution. Mem Bot Surv South Africa 62:461–474Google Scholar
  7. Archer RH (2003) Acalypha. In: Germishuizen G, Meyer NL (eds) Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14:452–453Google Scholar
  8. Aubrèville A (1959) La flore forestiere de la Cote d’Ivoire. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Hohent-Sur HarneGoogle Scholar
  9. Backer CA, Bakhuizen van den Brink f RC (1963) Flora of Java 1. Noordhoff, GroningenGoogle Scholar
  10. Baillon HE (1858) Étude générale du groupe des Euphorbiacées. Librairie de Victor Masson, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barberá P, Velayos M, Aedo C (2013) Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni). Phytotaxa 140:1–25. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.140.1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barry JP, Celles JC (1991) Flore de Mauritanie Tome 1- Angiospermes dicotylédones. Université de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Institut Supérieur Scientifique de Nouakchott, p 359Google Scholar
  13. Berhaut J (1954) Flore du Sénégal, 2nd edn. Librairie Clairafrique, l’Université du Michigan, Ann Arbor, p 300Google Scholar
  14. Berhaut J (1975) Flore illustrée du Sénégal, 3. Gouvernement du Sénégal, DakarGoogle Scholar
  15. Boerlage JG (1900) Handleiding tot de kennis der flora van Nederlandsch Indië 3. Brill EJ, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  16. Braun KP, Dlamini SDV, Mdladla DR, Methule NP, Dlamini PW, Dlamini MS (2004) Swaziland Flora Checklist. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 27, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  17. Brenan JPM (1978) Some aspects of the phytogeography of Tropical Africa. Ann Missouri Bot Gar 65:437–478. doi: 10.2307/2398859 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brenan JPM, Greenway PJ (1949) Check-lists of the forest trees and shrubs of the British Empire, 5, Tanganyika Territory, Part II, xviii. Imperial Forestry Institute, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown NE, Hutchinson J, Prain D (1915) Euphorbiaceae. In: Thiselton-Dyer WT (ed) Flora Capensis: being a systematic description of the plants of the Cape colony, Caffraria and Port Natal (and neighbouring territories) 5, 2: Thymelaeaceae-Ceratophylleae. Lovell Reeve & co, London, pp 385–528Google Scholar
  20. Brummitt RK (2001) World geographical scheme for recording plant distributions, 2nd edn. Plant Taxonomic Database Standards 2, International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG). Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation Carnegie Mellon University, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  21. Brundu G, Camarda I (2013) The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23:1–18. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.23.4752 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brunel JF, Hiepko P, Scholz H (1984) Flore analytique du Togo: Phanérogames. Englera, Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, EschbornGoogle Scholar
  23. Burkill HM (1994) Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Edition 2, 2: Families E-I. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  24. Cardiel JM, Muñoz-Rodríguez P (2012) Synopsis of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) of Continental Ecuador. PhytoKeys 17:1–17. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.17.3190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cardiel JM, Muñoz-Rodríguez P (2015) Synopsis of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 101:84–405. doi: 10.3417/2014006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cardiel JM, Nee M, Muñoz-Rodríguez P (2013) Synopsis of Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae) of Peru and Bolivia, with description of a new species. Anales Jard Bot Madrid 70:152–177. doi: 10.3989/ajbm.2366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cardiel JM, Muñoz-Rodríguez P, Dorda E, Pardo de Santallana M (2017) Acalypha taxonomic information system. Available at: Accessed Feb 2017
  28. Catarino L, Martins ES, Pinto Basto MF, Diniz MA (2008) An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). Blumea 53:1–222. doi: 10.3767/000651908X608179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chakravarty H (1983) Flora of Cape Coast 2. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheek M (2004) Euphorbiaceae. In: Cheek M, Pollard BJ, Darbyshire I, Onana JM, Wild C (eds) The plants of Kupe, Mwanenguba and the Bakossi Mountains, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheek M, Onana JM, Pollard BJ (2000) The plants of Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  32. Da Silva MC, Izidine S, Amude AB (2004) A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 30, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  33. De Wildeman EAJ (1921) Contribution a l’Étude de la Flore du Katanga. Établissements Typo-Litho, D Reynaert, BruxellesGoogle Scholar
  34. De Wildeman EAJ (1926) Plantae Bequaertianae, Etudes sur les Récoltes Botaniques du Dr. J. Bequaert Chargé de Missions au Congo Belge (1913–1915), vol. 4(1–4). Gand, A BuyensGoogle Scholar
  35. Dokosi OB (1998) Herbs of Ghana. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Ghana Universities Press, AccraGoogle Scholar
  36. Durand T, Durand H (1909) Sylloge Florae Congolanae [Phanerogamae]. Maison Albert de Boeck, BruxellesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Engler A (1895) Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete. Geographische Verlagshandlung Dietrich Reimer, BerlínGoogle Scholar
  38. Exell AW (1944) Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tomé (with Principe and Annobon). British Museum (Natural History), LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Exell AW (1963) Angiosperm of the Cambridge Annobon Island Expedition. Bull Brit Mus (Nat Hist), Bot 3:93–118Google Scholar
  40. Exell AW (1973) Angiosperm of the island of the Gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S. Tomé, and Annobon. Bull Br (Mus Nat) Hist Bot 4:325–411Google Scholar
  41. Figueiredo E, Smith GF (2008) Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22, SANBI, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  42. Figueiredo E, Paiva J, Stévart T, Oliveira F, Smith GF (2011) Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41:41–82. doi: 10.4102/abc.v41i1.34 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Friis I, Vollesen K (1998) Flora of the Sudan-Uganda border area east of the Nile 1. Catalogue of Vascular plants, 1st part. Kommissionaer: Musnkgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  44. Gibbs GE, Welman WG, Retief E, Immelman KL, Germishuizen G, Pienaar BJ, Van Wyk M, Nicholas A (1987) List of species of Southern African plants, 2nd edn. Recent Literature and Synonyms 2: Dicotyledons. Mem Bot Surv South Africa 56:1–270Google Scholar
  45. Gilbert MG (1995) Euphorbiaceae. In: Edwards S, Tadesse M, Hedberg I (eds) Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2, 2, canellaceae to euphorbiaceae. Uppsala University, Uppsala, pp 265–380Google Scholar
  46. Govaerts R, Frodin DG, Radcliffe-Smith A (2000) World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  47. Guinea E (1946) Ensayo geobotánico de la Guinea Continental española. Dirección General de Marruecos y Colonias, MadridGoogle Scholar
  48. Hauxing Q, Gilbert MG (2008) Acalypha. In: Wu, Zy, Raven PH, Deyuan H (eds) Flora of China 11. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp 251–255Google Scholar
  49. Hawthorne WD, Jongkind CCH (2006) Woody plants of Western African Forests: a guide to the forest trees, Shrubs and Lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, KewGoogle Scholar
  50. Hiern WP (1900) Catalogue of the African Plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853–61, Dycotyledons 4: Lentibulariaceae to Ceratophylleae. Printed by order of the Trustees, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Hooker JD (1887) The flora of British India, vol 5. Covent Garden, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Hooker JD, Bentham G (1849) Flora Nigritiana. Hippolyte Bailliere Publisher, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchinson J (1913) Acalypha. In: Thiselton-Dyer WT (ed) Flora of tropical Africa 6, 1: nyctagineae-euphorbiaceae. Lovell Reeve & Co., London, pp 880–910Google Scholar
  54. Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM (1928) Flora of West Tropical Africa 1, 2. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, MillbankGoogle Scholar
  55. Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Keay RWJ, Nigel Hepper F (2014) Flora of West Tropical Africa, All territories in West Africa South of latitude 18°N, and to the West of Lake Chad, and Fernando Po. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, London. Available at:
  56. IUCN (2012) Red List categories and criteria: version 3.1., IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC). 2nd edn. Gland and Cambridge, pp 1–32  Google Scholar
  57. Klopper RR, Chatelain C, Bänniger V, Habashi C, Steyn HM, De Wet BC, Arnold TH, Gautier L, Smith GF, Spichiger R (2006) Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Sub-Saharan Africa. An index accepted names and synonyms. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 42, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuntze O (1891) Revisio Generum Plantarum 2. Arthur Felix, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  59. Le Bourgeois T, Merlier H (1995) Adventrop, Les adventices d’Afrique soudano-sahélienne. Editions Quae, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  60. Lebrun JP, Stork AL (1991) Énumération des plantes à fleurs d’Afrique tropicale 1 - Généralités et Annonaceae à Euphorbiaceae et Pandaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève, GenèveGoogle Scholar
  61. Lebrun JP, Stork AL (2006) Flowering Plants: Ecology and Distribution 2: Euphorbiaceae - Dichapetalaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève, GenèveGoogle Scholar
  62. Levin GA, Steinmann VW, Sagun VG (2005) Phylogeny and biogeography of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae). Abstract congress, XVII International Botanical Congress, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  63. Levin GA, Morton JK, Robbrecht E (2007) Two New Species of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) from Tropical Africa, and a Review of Some Robyns Names for Cupricolous Plants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Syst Bot 32:576–582. doi: 10.1600/036364407782250599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lisowski S (2009) Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée, Première partie (texte). Scripta Bot Belg 41:1–517Google Scholar
  65. Mapaura A, Timberlake J (2004) A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 38, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  66. McNeil J, Barrie FR, Buck WR, Demoulin V, Greuter W, Hawksworth DL, Herendeen PS, Knapp S, Marhold K, Prado J, Prud’Homme van Reine WF, Smith GF, Wiersema JH, Turland NJ (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code). Regnum Vegetabile 154. Koeltz Scientific BooksGoogle Scholar
  67. Mildbraed J (1914) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907–1908 unter Führung Adolf Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Band II. Botanik. Klinkhardt & Biermann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  68. Mildbraed J (1922) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910–1911, unter Führung Adolf Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Klinkhardt & Biermann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  69. Mildbraed J (1937) Neue Arten von der Insel Annobón. Notizbl Bot Gart Berlin-Dahlem 13:697–705. doi: 10.2307/3994958 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Müller-Argoviensis J (1865) Euphorbiaceae, Vorläufige Mittheilungen aus den für De Candolle Prodromus bestimmtem Manuscript über diese Familie. Linnaea 34:1–54Google Scholar
  71. Müller-Argoviensis J (1866) Acalypha. In: De Candolle AP, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, vol. 15, no 2. Treuttel et Würtz, Paris, pp 799–889Google Scholar
  72. Muñoz-Rodríguez P, Cardiel JM, Atha D (2014) Acalypha subgenus Linostachys (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae): a global review. Phytotaxa 166:199–221. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.166.3.2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nahonyo CL, Mwasumbi LB, Msuya CA, Masao CA, Suya TB, Shing’wenda C (2005) Ngezi-Vumawimbi forest reserves biodiversity inventory report. University of Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  74. Odugbemi T (2008) A textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  75. Okezie Akobundu I, Agyakwa CW (1988) A handbook of West African weeds, 2nd edn. International Institute of Agriculture, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  76. Oliver D (1875) Dicotyledones. In: Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition, an Enumeration of the Plants collected during the Journey of the late Captain JH Speke and Captain JA Grant from Zanzibar to Egypt. Trans Linn Soc London, Bot 29:104–151Google Scholar
  77. Oliver D (1887) Enumeration of the plants collected by Mr. H. H. Johnston on the Kilima-Njaro expedition, 1884. Trans Linn Soc London, Bot 2:327–355Google Scholar
  78. Pax FA (1898) Acalypha. In: Durand T, De Wildeman E (eds) Matériaux pour la flore du Congo, Deuxième fascicule. Bull Soc Roy Bot Belgique 37: 105–106Google Scholar
  79. Pax FA, Hoffmann K (1924) Acalypha. In: Engler A (ed) Das Pflanzenreich (Heft 85) IV.147. xvi. Engelmann W, Leipzig, pp 1–231Google Scholar
  80. Phiri PSM (2005) A checklist of Zambian vascular plants. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 32, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  81. Poiret JLM (1804) Acalypha. In: Lamarck L, Poiret JLM (eds) Encyclopédie Métodique, Botanique, 6. Chez H Agasse, Paris, pp 202–209Google Scholar
  82. Poiret JLM (1816) Acalypha. In: Lamarck L, Poiret JLM (eds) Encyclopédie Métodique, Botanique, 4. Chez H Agasse, Paris, pp 680–685Google Scholar
  83. Prain D, Hutchinson J (1913) Notes on some species of Acalyha. Bull Misc Inform Kew 1:1–28. doi: 10.2307/4118404 Google Scholar
  84. Radcliffe-Smith A (1973) Notes on African Euphorbiaceae: III, Acalypha. Kew Bull 28:287–295. doi: 10.2307/4119786 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Radcliffe-Smith A (1986) Notes on African Euphorbiaceae XVII, An Acalypha-hybrid from Kenya. Kew Bull 41:451–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Radcliffe-Smith A (1987) Euphorbiaceae (Part 1). In: Polhill RM (ed) Flora of tropical East Africa. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 185–213Google Scholar
  87. Radcliffe-Smith A (1989) Notes on African Euphorbiaceae: XX, Acalypha (ii). Kew Bull 44:439–454. doi: 10.2307/4110363 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Radcliffe-Smith A (1996) Euphorbiaceae. In: Pope GV (ed) Flora Zambesiaca, vol 9. Part 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 1–138Google Scholar
  89. Radcliffe-Smith A, Cable S, Cheek M (1998) Euphorbiaceae. In: Cable S, Cheek M (eds) The Plants of Mt. Cameroon. A conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Garden, KewGoogle Scholar
  90. Raimondo D, Von Staden L, Foden W, Victor JE, Helme NA, Turner RC, Kamundi DA, Manyama PA (2009) Red list of South African plants. Strelitzia 25, SANBI, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  91. Rani SRMS, Balakrishnan NP (2007) Diversity in the inflorescences and bracts of the genus Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. J Econ Taxon Bot 31:91–97Google Scholar
  92. Sagun VG, Levin GA, van Welzen PC (2010) Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 55:21–60. doi: 10.3767/000651910X499141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sánchez Pinto L, Rodriguez ML, Rodríguez S, Martín K, Cabrera A, Marrero MC (2005) Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta M, Zurita N, Marrero MC, Martín JL (eds) Lista preliminar de especies silvestres de Cabo Verde (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres). Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, p 44Google Scholar
  94. Setshogo MP (2005) Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 37, SABONET, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  95. Small JK (1913) Euphorbiaceae. In: Britton NL, Brown A (eds) An illustrated flora of the Northern United States. Scribner’s sons, New York, pp 452–477Google Scholar
  96. Soladoye MO, Oyesiku OO (2008) Taxonomy of Nigerian medicinal plants. In: Odugbemi T (ed) A textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, Akoka, pp 93–149Google Scholar
  97. Sosef MSM, Wieringa JJ, Jongkind CCH, Achoundong G, Azizet Issembé Y, Bedigian D, van den Berg RG, Breteler FJ, Cheek M, Degreef J, Faden RB, Goldblatt P, van der Maesen LJG, Ngok Banak L, Niangadouma R, Nzabi T, Nziengui B, Rogers ZS, Stévart T, van Valkenburg JLCH, Walters G, de Wilde JJFE (2006) Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Bot Belg 35:1–438Google Scholar
  98. Staner P (1938) Revision des espèces congolaises du genre Acalypha L. Bull Jard Bot État Bruxelles 15:132–146. doi: 10.2307/3666632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Steudel ET (1821) Nomenclator botanicus. JG Cottae, Stuttgardtiae et TubingaeGoogle Scholar
  100. Steudel ET (1841) Nomenclator Botanicus 2. JG Cottae, Stuttgartiae et TubingaeGoogle Scholar
  101. Strugnell AM (2006) A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi. Scripta Bot Belg 34:1–199Google Scholar
  102. Thiers B (2017) Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. The New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium, Bronx. Available at: Accessed Feb 2017
  103. Troupin G (1982) Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda. Musé Royal de l’Afrique Central, TervurenGoogle Scholar
  104. Vahl M, Forsskål P (1790) Symbolae botanicae, sive plantarum, tam earum, quas in itinere, imprimis orientali. Hauniae, excudebat Nicolaus Moller et filius, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  105. Velayos M, Cabezas F, Barberá P, de la Estrella M, Aedo C, Morales R, Quintanar A, Velayos G, Fero M (2013) Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bot Complut 37:109–133. doi: 10.5209/rev_BOCM.2013.v37.42275 Google Scholar
  106. Velayos M, Barberá P, Cabezas FJ, de la Estrella M, Fero M, Aedo C (2014) Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171:1–78. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.171.1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. White F (1962) Forest flora of Northern Rhodesia. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  108. White F, Dowsett-Lemaire F, Chapman JD (2001) Evergreen forest flora of Malawi. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  109. Wild H (1955) Common Rhodesian Weeds. Government Printer, SalisburyGoogle Scholar
  110. Wood JR (1997) A handbook of the Yemen Flora. Royal Botanic Garden, KewGoogle Scholar
  111. Wurdack KJ, Davis CC (2009) Malpighiales phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life. Amer J Bot 96:1551–1570. doi: 10.3732/ajb.0800207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Biología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de CantoblancoMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations