Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 300, Issue 9, pp 2019–2027 | Cite as

Conservation and genetics of two Critically Endangered Hispaniolan palms: genetic erosion of Pseudophoenix lediniana in contrast to P. ekmanii

  • Rosa A. Rodríguez-Peña
  • Brett Jestrow
  • William Cinea
  • Alberto Veloz
  • Francisco Jiménez-Rodríguez
  • Ricardo García
  • Alan W. Meerow
  • M. Patrick Griffith
  • Michael Maunder
  • Javier Francisco-Ortega
Original Article

Abstract

The palm species Pseudophoenix ekmanii (endemic to the Dominican Republic) and P. lediniana (endemic to Haiti) are the only Critically Endangered species (sensu IUCN) of the genus. Results are presented of recent field research and population genetic studies targeting P. lediniana. The field research confirmed that wild plants of P. lediniana are restricted to a single population found along almost inaccessible and unstable limestone cliffs along a ravine in southern Haiti, near Jacmel in the Province of Ouest. The population is composed of six fragments with approximately 71 adults and 2 juveniles. No seedlings were located, and the population is under severe extinction threat because of landslides during the raining season, massive forest clearance, and burns for charcoal extraction and cropping of subsistence staple crops. Seven DNA microsatellite (SSR) loci were used to generate estimates of genetic variation of this species. Approximately one-third of all wild plants (21 individuals) were sampled. Only four of these SSR loci were polymorphic and population genetic coefficients showed that the population is highly inbred. Population genetics results for P. lediniana were compared with those previously published for P. ekmanii. Levels of genetic variation were quantified by number of polymorphic loci and observed heterozygosity. These values were much lower in P. ledinana than in P. ekmanii. The latter species is officially protected in a national park and has several populations, some much larger than that of the P. lediniana population. Differences concerning in situ conservation protection and population size might explain differences for levels of genetic variation between these two Critically Endangered species. Ex situ and in situ strategies for conservation are proposed.

Keywords

Palms Biodiversity hotspots Caribbean West Indies Threatened species Genetic diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Mohamed Bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund (project number 11252872). Matching research funds were provided by Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden. We thank Paul Sharp for their technical assistance. Rosa Rodríguez received support from the Fulbright Foreign Student Program (LASPAU fellowship) and a tuition waiver from FIU. Daniel Gann provided help with the preparation of maps. Our gratitude to Liz Harrison and Nora Oleas for their help with the population genetic analyses. This is contribution 274 of the Tropical Biology Program of FIU. William Cinea arranged all the required collecting, export, and phytosanitary permits to conduct this study.

References

  1. Allendorf FW, Luikart G (2007) Conservation and the genetics of populations. Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  2. Auld TD, Hutton I, Ooi MKJ, Denham AJ (2010) Disruption of recruitment in two endemic palms on Lord Howe Island by invasive rats. Biol Invas 12:3351–3361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calonje M, Meerow AW, Knowles L, Knowles D, Griffith P, Nakamura K, Francisco-Ortega J (2013) Cycad biodiversity in the Bahama Archipelago and conservation genetics of the Critically Endangered Zamia lucayana (Zamiaceae). Oryx 47:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cañellas-Boltà N, Rull V, Sáez A, Margalef O, Bao R, Pla-Rabes S, Blaauw M, Valero-Garcés B, Giralt S (2013) Vegetation changes and human settlement of Easter Island during the last millennia: a multiproxy study of the Lake Raraku sediments. Quatern Sci Rev 72:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carey E, Gape L, Manco BN, Hepburn D, Smith RL, Knowles L, Knowles D, Daniels M, Vincent MA, Freid E, Jestrow B, Griffith MP, Calonje M, Meerow AW, Stevenson DW, Francisco-Ortega J (2014) Plant conservation challenges in the Bahama archipelago. Bot Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Clase T, Peguero B (2006) Inventario preliminar de plantas exclusivas de Haití. In: Mejía Pimentel M, García R, Lagos-White S, Peguero B, Rodríguez S, Castillo D, Jiménez F, Veloz A, Zanoni T (eds) Libro de resúmenes. IX Congreso Latinoaméricano de Botánica. 18–25 de junio 2006. Jardín Botánico Nacional Dr. Rafael María Moscoso, Santo Domingo, p 140Google Scholar
  7. Congreso Nacional de la República Dominicana (2004) Ley Sectorial de Áreas Protegidas, No. 202–04. http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=236193
  8. DeSalle R, Amato G (2009) The expansion of conservation genetics. In: Amato G, Ryder O, Rosenbaum H, DeSalle R (eds) Conservation genetics in the age of genomics. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 5–12Google Scholar
  9. Dowe JL, Benzie J, Ballment E (1997) Ecology and genetics of Carpoxylon macrospermum H Wendl, Drude (Arecaceae), an endangered palm from Vanuatu. Biol Conservation 79:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Earl DA (2011) Structure Harvester v0.6.7. http://users.soe.ucsc.edu/~dearl/software/structureHarvester/
  11. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molec Ecol 14:2611–2620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin ver. 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinformatics Online 1:47–50 http://cmpg.unibe.ch/software/arlequin3/
  13. Fleischmann K, Edwards PJ, Ramseier D, Kollmann J (2005) Stand structure, species diversity and regeneration of an endemic palm forest on the Seychelles. African J Ecol 43:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foxx RM (2012) Te Terre a fatige ‘the Earth is tired’: reversing deforestation in Haiti. Behavio Interven 27:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francisco-Ortega J, Zona S (2013) Sweet sap from palms, a source of beverages, alcohol, vinegar, syrup, and sugar. Vieraea 41:91–113Google Scholar
  16. Francisco-Ortega J, Santiago-Valentín E, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Lewis C, Pipoly J III, Meerow AW, Maunder M (2007) Seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot: a review and a molecular phylogenetic perspective. Bot Rev 73:183–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Geiger JH, Meerow AW, Lewis C, Oviedo R, Francisco-Ortega J (2014) Genetic diversity and conservation of Ipomoea microdactyla (Convolvulaceae): an endemic vine from the Bahamas, Cuba, and southeastern Florida. Pl Spec Biol 29:2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goudet J (1995) FSTAT version 1.2: a computer program to calculate F-Statistics. J Heredity 86:485–486Google Scholar
  19. Guo SW, Thompson EA (1992) Performing the exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportion for multiple allele. Biometrics 48:361–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henderson A, Aubry M, Timyan J, Balick M (1990) Conservation status of Haitian palms. Principes 34:134–142Google Scholar
  21. Henderson AG, Galeano G, Bernal R (1995) Field guide to the palms of the Americas. Princeton University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  22. Heywood VH (2011) The hazardous future of island flora. In: Bramwell D, Caujapé-Castells J (eds) The Biology of island floras. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 488–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Höglund J (2009) Evolutionary conservation genetics. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. IUCN (2013) The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2013.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  25. Jakobsson M, Rosenberg NA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics 14:1801–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson D (1996) Palms: their conservation and sustained utilization. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson D (1998) Copernicia ekmanii In: IUCN (ed) IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2013.1 (IUCN 2013). http://www.iucnredlist.org
  28. Manohara TN, Linto EL, Renuka C (2010) Diversity and conservation of palms in Andaman, Nicobar archipelago. Biodivers Conservation 19:3655–3666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maschinski J, Duquesnel J (2006) Successful reintroductions of the endangered long-lived Sargent’s cherry palm, Pseudophoenix sargentii, in the Florida Keys. Biol Conservation 134:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maunder M, Lyte B, Dransfield J, Baker W (2001) The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections. Biol Conservation 98:259–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maunder M, Page W, Mauremootoo J, Payendee R, Mungroo Y, Maljkovic A, Vericel C, Lyte B (2002) The decline and conservation management of the threatened endemic palms of the Mascarene Islands. Oryx 36:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maunder M, Leiva A, Santiago-Valentín E, Stevenson DW, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Meerow AW, Mejía M, Clubbe C, Francisco-Ortega J (2008) Plant conservation in the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot. Bot Rev 74:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maunder M, Abdo M, Berazain R, Clubbe C, Jiménez F, Leiva A, Santiago-Valentín E, Francisco-Ortega J (2011) The plants of the Caribbean islands: a review of the biogeography, diversity and conservation of a storm-battered biodiversity hotspot. In: Bramwell D, Caujapé-Castells J (eds) The Biology of island floras. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 154–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meerow AW, Nakamura K (2007) Ten microsatellite loci from Zamia integrifolia (Zamiaceae). Molec Ecol Notes 7:824–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meerow AW, Francisco-Ortega J, Calonje M, Griffith MP, Ayala-Silva T, Stevenson DW, Nakamura K (2012) Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) on Puerto Rico: asymmetric genetic differentiation and the hypothesis of multiple introductions. Amer J Bot 99:1828–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer J-Y, Butaud J-F (2009) The impacts of rats on the endangered native flora of French Polynesia (Pacific Islands): drivers of plant extinction or coup de grâce species? Biol Invas 11:1569–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morici C (2004) Palmeras e islas: la insularidad en una de las familias más diversas del reino vegetal. In: Fernández-Palacios JM, Morici C (eds) Ecología insular/Island ecology. Asociación Española de Ecología Terrestre. Cabildo Insular de La Palma, Spain, pp 81–122Google Scholar
  38. Morrison C, Rounds I, Watling D (2012) Conservation and management of the Endangered Fiji Sago Palm, Metroxylon vitiense, in Fiji. Environm Managem 49:929–941Google Scholar
  39. Namoff S, Francisco-Ortega J, Zona S, Lewis CE (2010a) Microsatellite markers developed for the Caribbean palm Pseudophoenix sargentii – two PCR-based methods. Conservation Genet Resources 2:85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Namoff S, Husby C, Francisco-Ortega J, Noblick LR, Lewis CE, Griffith P (2010b) How well does a botanical garden collection of a rare palm capture the genetic variation in a wild population? Biol Conservation 143:1110–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Namoff S, Veloz A, Jiménez F, Rodríguez-Peña RA, Peguero B, Lewis C, Moynihan J, Abdo M, Maunder M, Meerow A, Von Wettberg E, Griffith P, Francisco-Ortega J (2011) Sweet drinks are made of this: conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic. J Heredity 102:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oleas N, Jestrow B, Calonje M, Peguero B, Jiménez F, Rodríguez-Peña R, Oviedo R, Santiago-Valentín E, Meerow AW, Abdo M, Maunder M, Griffith P, Francisco-Ortega J (2013) Molecular systematics of threatened seed plant species endemic in the Caribbean Islands. Bot Rev 79:528–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Orloci L (1978) Multivariate analysis in vegetation research. Dr. W Junk B V, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  44. Paryski P, Woods CA, Sergile F (1989) Conservation strategies and the preservation of biological diversity in Haiti. In: Woods CA, Sergile FE (eds) Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives. Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, pp 855–878Google Scholar
  45. Paskett CJ, Philoctete CE (1990) Soil conservation in Haiti. J Soil Water Conservation 45:457–459Google Scholar
  46. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molec Ecol Notes 6:288–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research – an update. Bioinformatics 28:2537–2539. http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/19/2537 Google Scholar
  48. Prebble M, Dowe JL (2008) The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands. Quatern Sci Rev 27:2546–2567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Ratsirarson J, Silander JA, Richard AF (1996) Conservation and management of a threatened Madagascar palm species, Neodypsis decaryi, Jumelle. Conservation Biol 10:40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) Genepop (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Heredity 86:248–249Google Scholar
  52. Read RW (1988) Utilization of indigenous palms in the Caribbean (in relation to their abundance). Advances Econ Bot 6:137–143Google Scholar
  53. Rist J, Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Fleischer-Dogley F, Edwards P, Bunbury N, Ghazoul J (2010) Sustainable harvesting of coco de mer, Lodoicea maldivica, in the Vallée de Mai, Seychelles. Forest Ecol Manag 260:2224–2231Google Scholar
  54. Rodríguez-Peña R (2013) Sampling Cherry Palms in the Dominican Republic. Trop Gard 68:55Google Scholar
  55. Rousset F (2008) Genepop’007: a complete reimplementation of the Genepop software for Windows and Linux. Molec Ecol Resources 8:103–106. http://genepop.curtin.edu.au/
  56. Rousset F, Raymond M (1995) Testing heterozygote excess and deficiency. Genetics 140:1413–1419PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Rueger BF, von Wallmenich TN (1996) Human impact on the forests of Bermuda: the decline of endemic cedar and palmetto since 1609: recorded in the Holocene pollen record of Devonshire Marsh. J Paleolimnol 16:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Santiago-Valentin E, Sustache J, Francisco-Ortega J, Figueroa-Hernández C, Fuemero-Caban J, Griffith MP (2012) Pseudophoenix sargentii on Mona Island: conservation survey and a new discovery. Palms 56:78–90Google Scholar
  59. Sergile FE, Woods CA (2001) Status of conservation in Haiti: a 10-year retrospective. In: Woods CA, Sergile FE (eds) Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 547–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shapcott A, Rakotoarinivo M, Smith RJ, Lysaková G, Fay MF, Dransfield J (2007) Can we bring Madagascar’s critically endangered palms back from the brink? Genetics, ecology and conservation of the critically endangered palm Beccariophoenix madagascariensis. Bot J Linn Soc 154:589–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shapcott A, Hutton I, Baker WJ, Auld TD (2012a) Conservation genetics and ecology of an endemic montane palm on Lord Howe Island and its potential for resilience. Conservation Genet 13:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shapcott A, Quinn J, Rakotoarivino M, Dransfield J (2012b) Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity between two endangered palms with overlapping distributions, Voanioala gerardii (Arecoideae) and Lemurophoenix halleuxii (Arecoideae), from North-east Madagascar. Conservation Genet 13:1393–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Slatkin M, Excoffier L (1996) Testing for linkage disequilibrium in genotypic data using the expectation maximization algorithm. Heredity 76:377–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith ML, Hedges SB, Buck W, Hemphill A, Inchaustegui S, Ivie MA, Martina D, Maunder M, Francisco-Ortega J (2004) Caribbean Islands. In: Mittermeier RA, Gil RR, Hoffman M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux J, da Fonseca GAB (eds) Hotspots revisited: Earth’s biologically richest and most threatened terrestrial ecoregions. CEMEX, Mexico, pp 112–118Google Scholar
  65. Smouse PE, Peakall R (1999) Spatial autocorrelation analysis of individual multiallele and multilocus genetic structure. Heredity 82:561–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Strahm W (1996) Botanical history of the Mascarene Islands. Curtis’s Bot Mag 13:217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Timyan JC, Reep SF (1994) Conservation status of Attalea crassispatha (Mart.) Burret, the rare and endemic oil palm of Haiti. Biol Conservation 68:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Timyan JC, Hubbuch CE, Michal S (1997) Hunting for Mr. Straw Man. Principes 41:140–145Google Scholar
  69. Torres-Santana CW, Santiago-Valentín E, Leiva Sánchez AT, Peguero B, Clubbe C (2010) Conservation status of plants in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. In: Anonymous (ed) Proceedings of the Fourth Global Botanic Gardens Congress, June 2010. Dublin. http://www.bgci.org/files/Dublin2010/papers/Torres-Santana-Christian.pdf
  70. Van Oosterhout C, Hutchinson WF, Wills DPM, Shipley P (2004) Micro- Checker: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Molec Ecol Notes 4:535–538. http://www.microchecker.hull.ac.uk/
  71. Zanoni TA, Buck WR (1999) Navassa Island and its flora. 2. Checklist of the vascular plants. Brittonia 51:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zona S (2002) A revision of Pseudophoenix. Palms 46:19–38Google Scholar
  73. Zona S, Verdecia R, Leiva Sánchez A, Lewis CE, Maunder M (2007) The conservation status of West Indian palms (Arecaceae). Oryx 41:300–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa A. Rodríguez-Peña
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brett Jestrow
    • 2
  • William Cinea
    • 3
  • Alberto Veloz
    • 4
  • Francisco Jiménez-Rodríguez
    • 4
  • Ricardo García
    • 4
  • Alan W. Meerow
    • 5
  • M. Patrick Griffith
    • 6
  • Michael Maunder
    • 1
  • Javier Francisco-Ortega
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and SciencesFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Kushlan Tropical Biology InstituteFairchild Tropical Botanic GardenMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Jardin Botanique des Cayes, BergeaudCayesHaiti
  4. 4.Jardín Botánico NacionalSanto DomingoDominican Republic
  5. 5.USDA-ARS-SHRS, National Germplasm RepositoryMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Montgomery Botanical CenterMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations