Population genetic structure of wild daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.) at different spatial scales

Abstract

We studied the population genetic and clonal structure of the endangered long-lived perennial plant Narcissus pseudonarcissus using random amplified polymorphic markers. Estimates for mean gene diversity within 15 populations of N. pseudonarcissus of three neighbouring geographical regions were high in comparison to other long-lived perennials (H eN = 0.33). The genetic diversity of the two smallest populations (<200 plants) was significantly reduced, indicating loss of genetic variability due to drift. The analysis of the population genetic structure revealed a significant genetic differentiation both between regions (ΦST = 0.06) and between populations within regions (ΦST = 0.20). However, there was incomplete correspondence between geographical regions and the population genetic structure. In order to preserve the overall genetic variation in wild populations of N. pseudonarcissus, management measures should thus aim to protect many populations in each region. The spatial genetic structure within populations of N. pseudonarcissus was in agreement with an isolation by distance model indicating limited gene flow due to pollinator behaviour and restricted seed dispersal. The very restricted spatial extent of clonal growth (<5 cm) and the high level of clonal diversity indicate that clonal growth in N. pseudonarcissus is not an important mode of propagation and that management measures should favour sexual reproduction in order to avoid further reductions in the size and number of populations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Aguilar R, Quesada M, Ashworth L, Herrerias-Diego Y, Lobo J (2008) Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches. Mol Ecol 17:5177–5188

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Auge H, Neuffer B, Erlinghagen F, Grupe R, Brandl R (2001) Demographic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses reveal high levels of genetic diversity in a clonal violet. Mol Ecol 10:1811–1819

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bachmann U, Hensen I (2007) Is declining Campanula glomerata threatened by genetic factors? Plant Species Biol 22:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barkham JP (1980a) Population-dynamics of the wild daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). 1. Clonal growth, seed reproduction, mortality and the effects of density. J Ecol 68:607–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Barkham JP (1980b) Population-dynamics of the wild daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). 2. Changes in number of shoots and flowers, and the effect of bulb depth on growth and reproduction. J Ecol 68:635–664

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Barkham JP (1992) The effects of management on the ground flora of ancient woodland, Brigsteer Park Wood, Cumbria, England. Biol Conserv 60:167–187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Barkham JP, Hance CE (1982) Population-dynamics of the wild daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). 3. Implications of a computer-model of 1000-years of population change. J Ecol 70:323–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bateman AJ (1954) The genetics of Narcissus. 1. Sterility. Daffodil and tulip year book, vol. 19. Royal Horticultural Society, London, pp 23–29

    Google Scholar 

  9. Beatty GE, Mcevoy PM, Sweeney O, Provan J (2008) Range-edge effects promote clonal growth in peripheral populations of the one-sided wintergreen Orthilia secunda. Divers Distrib 14:546–555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bizoux JP, Mahy G (2007) Within-population genetic structure and clonal diversity of a threatened endemic metallophyte, Viola calaminaria (Violaceae). Am J Bot 94:887–895

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bossuyt B, Honnay O (2006) Interactions between plant life span, seed dispersal capacity and fecundity determine metapopulation viability in a dynamic landscape. Landscape Ecol 21:1195–1205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Caldwell J, Wallace TJ (1955) Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. J Ecol 43:331–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chung MY, Nason JD, Chung MG (2004) Spatial genetic structure in populations of the terrestrial orchid Cephalanthera longibracteata (Orchidaceae). Am J Bot 91:52–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Colling G (2005) Red list of the vascular plants of Luxembourg. Ferrantia 42:1–77

    Google Scholar 

  15. Colling G, Reckinger C, Matthies D (2004) Effects of pollen quantity and quality on reproduction and offspring vigor in the rare plant Scorzonera humilis (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 91:1774–1782

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. De Jong TJ, Waser NM, Price MV, Ring RM (1992) Plant size, geitonogamy and seed set in Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 89:310–315

    Google Scholar 

  17. Duhme F, Kaule G (1970) Zur Verbreitung der gelben Narzisse (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.) auf Primär- und Sekundärstandorten in Mittel- und Nordwesteuropa. Ber Deutsch Bot Ges 83:647–659

    Google Scholar 

  18. Dumont JM (1979) Les anciennes prairies à Colchicum autumnale du plateau des tailles (Belgique). Bul Jard Bot Nat Belg 49:121–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Eckert CG, Barrett SCH (1993) Clonal reproduction and patterns of genotypic diversity in Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). Am J Bot 80:1175–1182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ellstrand NC, Roose ML (1987) Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant-species. Am J Bot 74:123–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes—application to human mitochondrial-DNA restriction data. Genetics 131:479–491

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2003) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics 164:1567–1587

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2007) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles. Mol Ecol Notes 7:574–578

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Felsenstein J (1993) PHYLIP (phylogeny inference package) version 3.6. Distributed by the author, Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle

  26. Fischer M, Matthies D (1998) RAPD variation in relation to population size and plant fitness in the rare Gentianella germanica (Gentianaceae). Am J Bot 85:811–819

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Freckleton RP, Watkinson AR (2002) Large-scale spatial dynamics of plants: metapopulations, regional ensembles and patchy populations. J Ecol 90:419–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gehu JM (1961) Les groupements végétaux du bassin de la Sambre française. Vegetatio 10:257–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gower JC, Legendre P (1986) Metric and Euclidean properties of dissimilarity coefficients. J Classif 3:5–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hangelbroek HH, Ouborg NJ, Santamaria L, Schwenk K (2002) Clonal diversity and structure within a population of the pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus foraged by Bewick’s swans. Mol Ecol 11:2137–2150

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Hardy OJ (2003) Estimation of pairwise relatedness between individuals and characterization of isolation-by-distance processes using dominant genetic markers. Mol Ecol 12:1577–1588

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Hardy OJ, Vekemans X (1999) Isolation by distance in a continuous population: reconciliation between spatial autocorrelation analysis and population genetics models. Heredity 83:145–154

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Hardy OJ, Vekemans X (2002) SPAGeDi: a versatile computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levels. Mol Ecol Notes 2:618–620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Holsinger KE, Wallace LE (2004) Bayesian approaches for the analysis of population genetic structure: an example from Platanthera leucophaea (Orchidaceae). Mol Ecol 13:887–894

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Holsinger KE, Lewis PO, Dey DK (2002) A Bayesian approach to inferring population structure from dominant markers. Mol Ecol 11:1157–1164

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Honnay O, Bossuyt B (2005) Prolonged clonal growth: escape route or route to extinction? Oikos 108:427–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Honnay O, Jacquemyn H (2007) Susceptibility of common and rare plant species to the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation. Conserv Biol 21:823–831

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Hoyois G (1949) L’Ardenne et l’Ardennais. Tome 1. J. Duculot, Gembloux

    Google Scholar 

  39. Jacquemyn H, Brys R, Adriaens D, Honnay O, Roldan-Ruiz I (2009) Effects of population size and forest management on genetic diversity and structure of the tuberous orchid Orchis mascula. Conserv Genet 10:161–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Jakobsson M, Rosenberg NA (2007) CLUMPP: a cluster matching and permutation program for dealing with label switching and multimodality in analysis of population structure. Bioinformatics 23:1801–1806

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Kahmen S, Poschlod P (2000) Population size, plant performance, and genetic variation in the rare plant Arnica montana L. in the Rhön, Germany. Basic Appl Ecol 1:43–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kery M, Matthies D (2004) Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae). Plant Biol 6:683–688

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Korneck D, Schnittler M, Vollmer I (1996) Rote Liste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen (Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta) Deutschlands. Schriftenr Vegetationskd 28:21–187

    Google Scholar 

  44. Leimu R, Mutikainen P, Koricheva J, Fischer M (2006) How general are positive relationships between plant population size, fitness and genetic variation? J Ecol 94:942–952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Lowe AJ, Harris SA, Ashton P (2004) Ecological genetics. Design, analysis and application. Blackwell, Oxford, UK

    Google Scholar 

  46. Luijten SH, Dierick A, Oostermeijer JGB, Raijmann LEL, Den Nijs HCM (2000) Population size, genetic variation, and reproductive success in a rapidly declining, self-incompatible perennial (Arnica montana) in the Netherlands. Cons Biol 14:1776–1787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Lynch M, Milligan BG (1994) Analysis of population genetic-structure with RAPD Markers. Mol Ecol 3:91–99

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Matthies D, Bräuer I, Maibom W, Tscharntke T (2004) Population size and the risk of local extinction: empirical evidence from rare plants. Oikos 105:481–488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. McGlaughlin ME, Friar EA (2007) Clonality in the endangered Ambrosia pumila (Asteraceae) inferred from RAPD markers; implications for conservation and management. Conserv Genet 8:319–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Medrano M, Herrera CM (2008) Geographical structuring of genetic diversity across the whole distribution range of Narcissus longispathus, a habitat-specialist, Mediterranean narrow endemic. Ann Bot 102:183–194

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Moser DM, Gygax A, Bäumler B, Wyler N, Palese R (2002) Rote Liste der gefährdeten Arten der Schweiz. Farn- und Blütenpflanzen. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Bern

    Google Scholar 

  52. Müller-Schärer H, Fischer M (2001) Genetic structure of the annual weed Senecio vulgaris in relation to habitat type and population size. Mol Ecol 10:17–28

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  54. Nybom H (2004) Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Mol Ecol 13:1143–1155

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Oksanen J, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’Hara RB (2008) Vegan: community ecology package version 1.8-6. http://cran.r-project.org/

  56. Oostermeijer JGB, De Knegt B (2004) Genetic population structure of the wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in fragmented Dutch heathlands. Plant Species Biol 19:175–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Ouborg NJ, Vergeer P, Mix C (2006) The rough edges of the conservation genetics paradigm for plants. J Ecol 94:1233–1248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Page RDM (1996) Treeview: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12:357–358

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) Genalex 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6:288–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Peterson A, Bartish IV, Peterson J (2008) Effects of population size on genetic diversity, fitness and pollinator community composition in fragmented populations of Anthericum liliago L. Plant Ecol 198:101–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Rademaker MCJ, de Jong TJ (1998) Effects of flower number on estimated pollen transfer in natural populations of three hermaphroditic species: an experiment with fluorescent dye. J Evol Biol 11:623–641

    Google Scholar 

  63. Rosenberg NA (2004) DISTRUCT: a program for the graphical display of population structure. Mol Ecol Notes 4:137–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Schmithüsen J (1940) Das Luxemburger Land. Landesnatur, Volkstum und bäuerliche Wirtschaft. S. Hirzel, Leipzig

    Google Scholar 

  65. Simpson EH (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature 163:688

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Slatkin M, Voelm L (1991) F ST in a hierarchical island model. Genetics 127:627–629

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BR, Van Der Linde A (2002) Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit. J R Stat Soc B 64:583–616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Stewart CN, Excoffier L (1996) Assessing population genetic structure and variability with RAPD data: application to Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry). J Evol Biol 9:153–171

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Tero N, Aspi J, Siikamaki P, Jakalaniemi A, Tuomi J (2003) Genetic structure and gene flow in a metapopulation of an endangered plant species, Silene tatarica. Mol Ecol 12:2073–2085

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Van Geert A, Van Rossum F, Triest L (2008) Genetic diversity in adult and seedling populations of Primula vulgaris in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Conserv Genet 9:845–853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Vekemans X (2002) AFLP-SURV version 1.0. Distributed by the author. Laboratoire de Genetique et Ecologie Végétale, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

  72. Vekemans X, Hardy OJ (2004) New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations. Mol Ecol 13:921–935

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Volis S, Bohrer G, Oostermeijer G, Van Tienderen P (2005) Regional consequences of local population demography and genetics in relation to habitat management in Gentiana pneumonanthe. Conserv Biol 19:357–367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Wallace LE (2006) Spatial genetic structure and frequency of interspecific hybridization in Platanthera aquilonis and P. dilatata (Orchidaceae) occurring in sympatry. Am J Bot 93:1001–1009

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Wright S (1943) Isolation by distance. Genetics 28:114–138

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Young A, Boyle T, Brown T (1996) The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends Ecol Evol 11:413–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Zhivotovsky LA (1999) Estimating population structure in diploids with multilocus dominant DNA markers. Mol Ecol 8:907–913

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank R. Mozek and C. Steinbach for their precious help with collecting leaf samples in the field.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Guy Colling.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Colling, G., Hemmer, P., Bonniot, A. et al. Population genetic structure of wild daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.) at different spatial scales. Plant Syst Evol 287, 99–111 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-010-0298-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Narcissus pseudonarcissus
  • Population genetic structure
  • Conservation genetics
  • RAPD
  • Clonality
  • Spatial autocorrelation