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Electrochemical detection of methyl parathion using calix[6]arene/bismuth ferrite/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode

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Abstract

A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor using a calix[6]arene/bismuth ferrite/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (CA6/BFO/MWCNTs/FTO) was fabricated for the detection of methyl parathion. The MWCNTs, BFO, and CA6 were consecutively cast onto the FTO electrode surface to enhance the surface area, electron transfer, and selectivity of sensors. The electrochemical behavior of CA6/BFO/MWCNTs/FTO was studied via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MP was detected via cyclic voltammetry in a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. The working principle of the sensor involves a linear decrease in the anodic peak current of BFO with increasing MP concentration. The linear working ranges are 0.005–0.05 nM and 0.07–1.5 nM. The CA6/BFO/MWCNTs/FTO sensor provides a low detection limit (S/N = 3) of 5 pM and a high electrochemical sensitivity of 1.23 A μM–1 cm–2. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to assess the presence and amount of MP in vegetables and fruits (recoveries of 82.0–106.8%), with results comparable to high-performance liquid chromatography.

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Funding

This work is funded by the Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST) for N. Gissawong, the Materials Chemistry Research Center (MCRC) and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH–CIC), and the Office of the Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education, Thailand. S. Mukdasai received grants from the NSRF via Program Management Unit for Human Resources & Institutional Development, Research and Innovation.

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Netsirin Gissawong: conceptualization, methodology, investigation, writing—original draft. Supalax Srijaranai: supervision, writing—review and editing. Suwat Nanan: visualization, investigation. Kanit Mukdasai: visualization. Pikaned Uppachai: methodology, validation, visualization. Norio Teshima: visualization. Siriboon Mukdasai: conceptualization, supervision, writing—review and editing.

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Correspondence to Siriboon Mukdasai.

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Gissawong, N., Srijaranai, S., Nanan, S. et al. Electrochemical detection of methyl parathion using calix[6]arene/bismuth ferrite/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode. Microchim Acta 189, 461 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-022-05562-5

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