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Electrochemical immunosensor development based on core-shell high-crystalline graphitic carbon nitride@carbon dots and Cd0.5Zn0.5S/d-Ti3C2Tx MXene composite for heart-type fatty acid–binding protein detection

Abstract

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a significant health problem owing to its high mortality rate. Heart-type fatty acid–binding protein (h-FABP) is an important biomarker in the diagnosis of AMI. In this work, an electrochemical h-FABP immunosensor was developed based on Cd0.5Zn0.5S/d-Ti3C2Tx MXene (MXene: Transition metal carbide or nitride) composite as signal amplificator and core-shell high-crystalline graphitic carbon nitride@carbon dots (hc-g-C3N4@CDs) as electrochemical sensor platform. Firstly, a facile calcination technique was applied to the preparation of hc-g-C3N4@CDs and immobilization of primary antibody was performed on hc-g-C3N4@CDs surface. Then, the conjugation of the second antibody to Cd0.5Zn0.5S/d-Ti3C2Tx MXene was carried out by strong π-π and electrostatic interactions. The prepared electrochemical h-FABP immunosensor was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The prepared electrochemical h-FABP immunosensor indicated a good sensitivity with detection limit (LOD) of 3.30 fg mL−1 in the potential range +0.1 to +0.5 V. Lastly, low-cost, satisfactory stable, and environmentally friendly immunosensor was presented for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

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Acknowledgements

Mehmet Lütfi YOLA would like to thank the Turkish Academy of Sciences for their invaluable support in respect to The Young Scientists Award Programme, TÜBA-GEBIP (2019). The study was partially supported by this award.

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Karaman, C., Karaman, O., Atar, N. et al. Electrochemical immunosensor development based on core-shell high-crystalline graphitic carbon nitride@carbon dots and Cd0.5Zn0.5S/d-Ti3C2Tx MXene composite for heart-type fatty acid–binding protein detection. Microchim Acta 188, 182 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04838-6

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Keywords

  • h-FABP protein
  • hc-g-C3N4@CDs
  • Cd0.5Zn0.5S/d-Ti3C2Tx MXene
  • Immunosensor
  • Voltammetry