Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and p-aminophenol using glassy carbon electrode modified with nitrogen- and sulfur- co-doped carbon dots

Abstract

Walnut shell was processed for preparing nanoporous carbon, which further underwent element doping in order to boost its performance. A novel electrochemical sensor was then built by using the nitrogen and sulfur co-doped walnut shell carbon (N,S-WSC). Morphology and microstructure of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (de)sorption which showed that N,S-WSC has a large specific surface with abundant pores. Electrochemical properties of differently modified sensors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. They demonstrated enhanced conductivity and enlarged surface after N,S co-doping. The modified electrode exhibits good catalytic ability towards paracetamol (ACOP) and p-aminophenol (PAP), and baseline separation of their oxidation peaks (peak potential difference is 0.24 V) allows for simultaneous detection of these two compounds. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration plot is linear in the 0.1 to 220 μM ACOP concentration range, with a 26 nM detection limit. Response to PAP is linear from 1.0 to 300 μM, and the detection limit is 38 nM (at S/N = 3). The sensor was successfully applied to quantify ACOP and PAP in tablets, and the accuracy of results is validated by HPLC.

Schematic representation of a novel electrochemical sensor based on N, S co-doped walnut shell carbon modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of paracetamol and p-aminophenol.

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Acknowledgements

The work financially supported by Innovation and entrepreneurship project for overseas high-level talents of Shenzhen (KQJSCX20180328165437711) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (81773680).

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Correspondence to Yingchun Li.

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Wang, J., Zhang, H., Zhao, J. et al. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and p-aminophenol using glassy carbon electrode modified with nitrogen- and sulfur- co-doped carbon dots. Microchim Acta 186, 733 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3870-2

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Keywords

  • Simultaneous detection
  • Electrochemical sensor
  • Pharmaceutical analysis
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • Cyclic voltammetry
  • Differential pulse voltammetry
  • Nanoporous material