Microchimica Acta

, 185:311 | Cite as

Liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with L-cysteine for photoelectrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1

  • Youxiu Lin
  • Qian Zhou
  • Yongyi ZengEmail author
  • Dianping TangEmail author
Original Paper


The authors describe a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foodstuff. The competitive immunoreaction is carried out on a microplate coated with a capture antibody against AFB1 using AFB1-bovine serum albumin (BSA)-liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) loaded with L-cysteine as a support. The photocurrent is produced by a photoactive material consisting of cerium-doped Bi2MoO6. Initially, L-cysteine acting as the electron donor is gated in the pores by interaction between mesoporous silica and liposome. Thereafter, AFB1-BSA conjugates are covalently bound to the liposomes. Upon introduction of the analyte (AFB1), the labeled AFB1-BSA complex competes with the analyte for the antibody deposited on the microplate. Accompanying with the immunocomplex, the liposomes on the MSNs are lysed upon addition of Triton X-100. This results in the opening of the pores and in a release of L-cysteine. Free cysteine then induces the electron-hole scavenger of the photoactive nanosheets to increase the photocurrent. The photocurrent (relative to background signal) increases with increasing AFB1 concentration. Under optimum conditions, the photoactive nanosheets display good photoelectrochemical responses, and allow the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 0.1 pg·mL−1 within a linear response in the 0.3 pg·mL−1 to 10 ng·mL−1 concentration range. Accuracy was evaluated by analyzing naturally contaminated and spiked peanut samples by using a commercial AFB1 ELISA kit as the reference, and well-matching results were obtained.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of a photoelectrochemical immunoassay for AFB1. It is based on the use of Ce-doped Bi2MoO6 nanosheets and of liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with L-cysteine.


Photoelectrochemical immunoassay Aflatoxin B1 Ce-doped Bi2MoO6 nanosheets Peanut sample 



Authors thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21475025 & 21675029), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT15R11) for financial assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2848_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1112 kb)


  1. 1.
    Torchilin V (2005) Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers. Nat Rev Drug Discov 4:145–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edwards K, Baeumner A (2006) Liposomes in analyses. Talanta 68:1421–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Q, Boyd B (2013) Liposomes in biosensors. Analyst 138:391–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bui M, Ahmed S, Abbas A (2015) A single-digit pathogen and attomolar detection with the bare eye using liposome-amplified plasmonic immunoassay. Nano Lett 15:6239–6246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhuang J, Han B, Liu W, Zhou J, Liu K, Yang D, Tang D (2018) Liposome-amplified photoelectrochemical immunoassay for highly sensitive monitoring of disease biomarkers based on a split-type strategy. Biosens Bioelectron 99:230–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu M, Gan L, Chen L, Zhu D, Zhi Z, Hao X, Chen L (2012) A novel liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/silica nanoparticle as an oxygen carrier. Int J Pharm 427:354–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang Y, Chung T, Wu C (1998) Effect of saturated/unsaturated phosphatidylcholine ratio on the stability of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin/Silica. Int J Pharm 172:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tan Q, Zhang R, Kong R, Kong W, Zhao W, Qu F (2018) Detection of glutathione based on MnO2 nanosheet-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles and target induced release of glucose measured with a portable glucose meter. Microchim Acta 185:44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knežević N, Trewyn B, Lin V (2010) Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based visible light responsive controlled release delivery system. Chem Commun 47:2817–2819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martínez-Carmona M, Lozano D, Baeza D, Colilla M, Vallet-Regí M (2017) A novel visible light responsive nanosystem for cancer treatment. Nanoscale 9:15967–15973CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muhammad M, Guo M, Qi W, Sun F, Wang A, Guo Y, Zhu G (2011) pH-triggered controlled drug release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles via intracelluar dissolution of ZnO nanolids. J Am Chem Soc 13:8778–8781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Park C, Kim H, Kim C (2009) Enzyme responsive nanocontainers with cyclodextrin gatekeepers and synergistic effects in release of guests. J Am Chem Soc 131:16614–16615CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chung P, Kumar R, Pruski M, Lin V (2008) Temperature responsive solution partition of organic–inorganic hybrid poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated mesoporous silica nanospheres. Adv Funct Mater 18:1390–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luo Z, Hu Y, Cai K, Ding X, Zhang Q, Li M, Ma X, Zhang B, Zeng Y, Li P, Li J, Liu J, Zhao Y (2014) Intracellular redox-activated anticancer drug delivery by functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoreservoirs with tumor specificity. Biomaterials 35:7951–7962CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu J, Stace-Naughton L, Jiang X, Brinker C (2009) Porous nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (protocells) as delivery vehicles. J Am Chem Soc 131:1354–1355CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu M, Gan L, Chen L, Zhu D, Xu Z, Zhu D, Hao Z, Chen L (2012) Supramolecular core−shell nanosilica@liposome nanocapsules for drug delivery. Langmuir 28:10725–10732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cauda V, Engelke H, Sauer A, Arcizet D, Brauchle C, Radler J, Bein T (2010) Colchicine-loaded lipid bilayer-coated 50 nm mesoporous nanoparticles efficiently induce microtubule depolymerization upon cell uptake. Nano Lett 10:2484–2492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tang Y, Lai W, Zhang J, Tang D (2017) Competitive photometric and visual ELISA for aflatoxin B1 based on the inhibition of the oxidation of ABTS. Microchim Acta 184:2387–2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dai Z, Qin F, Zhao H, Ding J, Liu Y, Chen R (2016) Crystal defect engineering of aurivillius Bi2MoO6 by Ce doping for increased reactive species production in photocatalysis. ACS Catal 6:3180–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meng H, Wang M, Liu H, Liu X, Situ A, Wu B, Ji Z, Chang C, Nel A (2015) Use of a lipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle platform for synergistic gemcitabine and paclitaxel delivery to human pancreatic cancer in mice. ACS Nano 9:3540–3557CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mortera R, Vivero-Escoto J, I. Slowing I, Garrone E, Onid B, Lin V (2009) Cell-induced intracellular controlled release of membrane impermeable cysteine from a mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system. Chem Commun 22:3219–3221Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen H, Jiang J, Li Y, Deng T, Shen G, Yu R (2007) A novel piezoelectric immunoagglutination assay technique with antibody-modified liposome. Biosens Bioelectron 22:993–999CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin Y, Zhou Q, Tang D (2017) Dopamine-loaded liposomes for in-situ amplified photoelectrochemical immunoassay of AFB1 to enhance photocurrent of Mn2+-doped Zn3(OH)2V2O7 nanobelts. Anal Chem 89:11803–11810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dai Z, Qin F, Zhao H, Ding J, Liu Y, Chen R (2016) Crystal defect engineering of aurivillius Bi2MoO6 by Ce doping for increased reactive species production in photocatalysis. ACS Catal 6:3180–3190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Phuruangrat A, Ekthammathat N, Kuntalue B, Dumrongrojthanath P, Thongtem S, Thongtem T (2014) Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of Ce doped Bi2MoO6 nanoplates. J Nanomater art. ID:934165Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ahmad M, Pan C, Zhu J (2010) Electrochemical determination of L-cysteine by an elbow shaped, Sb-doped ZnO nanowire-modified electrode. J Mater Chem 20:7169–7147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Costa M, Frías I, Andrade C, Oliveira M (2017) Impedimetric immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 using a cysteine modified gold electrode with covalently immobilized carbon nanotubes. Microchim Acta 184:3205–3213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lu Z, Chen X, Wang Y, Zheng X, Li C (2015) Aptamer based fluorescence recovery assay for aflatoxin B1 using a quencher system composed of quantum dots and graphene oxide. Microchim Acta 182:571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nasirian V, Chabok A, Barati A, Rafienia M, Arabi M, Shamsipur M (2017) Ultrasensitive aflatoxin B1 assay based on FRET from aptamer labelled fluorescent polymer dots to silver nanoparticles labeled with complementary DNA. Microchim Acta 184:4655–4662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Di Nardo F, Baggiani C, Giovannoli C, Spano G, Anfossi L (2017) Multicolor immunochromatographic strip test based on gold nanoparticles for the determination of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins. Microchim Acta 184:1295–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tan L, He R, Chen K, Peng R, Huang C, Yang R, Tang Y (2016) Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for determination of aflatoxins using dummy molecularly imprinted polymers deposited on silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 183:1469–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yao M, Wang L, Fang C (2016) The chemiluminescence immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 based on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with two strategies of antigen probe immobilization. Luminescence 32:661–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang Y, Liao Z, Liu Y, Wan Y, Chang J, Wang H (2017) Flow cytometric immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 using magnetic microspheres encoded with upconverting fluorescent nanocrystals. Microchim Acta 184:1471–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tang D, Lin Y, Zhou Q, Lin Y, Li P, Niessner R, Knopp D (2014) Low-cost and highly sensitive immunosensing platform for aflatoxins using one-step competitive displacement reaction mode and portable glucometer-based detection. Anal Chem 86:11451–11458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nakamichi I, Iwaku M, Fusayama T (1983) Bovine teeth as possible substitutes in the adhesion test. J Dent Res 62:1076–1081CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Analytical Science for Food Safety and Biology (MOE & Fujian Province), Department of ChemistryFuzhou UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Liver Disease Center, The First Affiliated HospitalFujian Medical UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations