Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of total arsenic using a gold nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode on a paper-based device
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A multistep paper-based analytical device (mPAD) was designed and applied to the voltammetric determination of total inorganic arsenic. The electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles on a boron-doped diamond (AuNP/BDD) electrode and the determination of total inorganic arsenic is accomplished with a single device. Total inorganic arsenic can be determined by first reducing As(V) to As(III) using thiosulfate in 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. As(III) is then deposited on the electrode surface, and total inorganic arsenic is quantified as As(III) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry the potential range between −0.25 V and 0.35 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), best at around 0.05 V. Under optimal conditions, the voltammetric response for As(III) detection is linear in the range from 0.1 to 1.5 μg mL−1 and the limit of detection (3SD/slope) is 20 ng mL−1. The relative standard deviation at 0.3, 0.7 and 1.0 μg mL−1 of As(III) are 3.6, 4.3 and 3.3, respectively (10 different electrodes). The results show that the assay has high precision, a rather low working potential, and excellent sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. The method was employed to the determination of total inorganic arsenic in rice samples. Results agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).
KeywordsPortable sensor Metal nanoparticles Arsenic detection Thiosulfate Electrochemical detection Rice sample
The authors gratefully appreciated the financial support from the Thailand Research Fund via the Research Team Promotion Grant (RTA6080002), the Ratchadaphisaksomphot Endowment Fund of Chulalongkorn University and Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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