Microchimica Acta

, 185:282 | Cite as

Selective voltammetric determination of Cd(II) by using N,S-codoped porous carbon nanofibers

  • Sanshuang Gao
  • Jing Liu
  • Jun Luo
  • Xamxikamar Mamat
  • Sangaraju Sambasivam
  • Yongtao Li
  • Xun Hu
  • Thomas Wågberg
  • Guangzhi Hu
Original Paper


Porous carbon nanofibers codoped with nitrogen and sulfur (NFs) were prepared by pyrolysis of trithiocyanuric acid, silica nanospheres and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) followed by electrospinning. The NFs were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which then displayed highly sensitive response to traces of Cd(II). Compared to a bare GCE and a Nafion modified GCE, the GCE modified with codoped NFs shows improved sensitivity for Cd(II) in differential pulse anodic sweep voltammetry. The stripping peak current (typically measured at 0.81 V vs. Ag/AgCl) increases linearly in the 2.0–500 μg·L−1 Cd(II) concentration range. This is attributed to the large surface area (109 m2·g−1), porous structure, and high fraction of heteroatoms (19 at.% of N and 0.75 at.% of S). The method was applied to the determination of Cd(II) in (spiked) tap water where it gave recoveries that ranged between 96% and 103%.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with N- and S-codoped porous carbon nanofibers (N,S-PCNFs). This GCE has good selectivity for cadmium ion (Cd2+) which can be determined by differential pulse anodic sweeping voltammetry (DPASV) with a detection limit as low as 0.7 ng·mL−1.


Electrospinning Differential pulse anodic sweep voltammetry Electrochemical sensor Electroanalysis Heavy metals Tap water analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2818_MOESM1_ESM.docx (109 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 107 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Plant Resources in Arid Regions, State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringAnhui University of Science & TechnologyHuainanChina
  3. 3.Center for Electron Microscopy, Institute for New Energy Materials and Low-Carbon Technologies, School of Material Science and EngineeringTianjin University of TechnologyTianjinChina
  4. 4.School of Material Science and EngineeringUniversity of JinanJinanChina
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsUmea UniversityUmeaSweden

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