Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, 185:284 | Cite as

Water-soluble polymer dots formed from polyethylenimine and glutathione as a fluorescent probe for mercury(II)

  • Dan Luo
  • Shi Gang Liu
  • Nian Bing Li
  • Hong Qun Luo
Original Paper

Abstract

Water-soluble fluorescent polymer dots (PDs) were prepared from polyethylenimine and glutathione and are shown to be viable fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive determination of Hg(II). The PDs possess bright blue fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 340/462 nm) which is quenched on addition of Hg(II). Based on these findings, a fluorometric assay was worked out. Fluorescence linearly drops in the 0.1 to 100 μM Hg(II) concentration range, and the limit of detection is 32 nM.

Graphical abstract

The fluorescence of polymer dots prepared from glutathione and polyethyleimine (G-PEI PDs) is selectively quenched by Hg2+, and this finding was applied to the determination of Hg2+ in environmental water samples.

Keywords

Hg2+ analysis Environmental samples Industrial waste water Heavy metal ions Electron transfer Stern-Volmer plot Non-conjugated polymers Dynamic quenching 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors deeply acknowledge financial support for this work from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21675131), the Municipal Science Foundation of Chongqing City (CSTC-2015jcyjB50001), and the National Undergraduate Training Program for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (No.201610635036).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2817_MOESM1_ESM.doc (324 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 328 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Yao J, Yang M, Duan Y (2014) Chemistry, biology, and medicine of fluorescent nanomaterials and related systems: new insights into biosensing, bioimaging, genomics, diagnostics, and therapy. Chem Rev 114:6130–6178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim HN, Guo Z, Zhu W, Yoon J, Tian H (2011) Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors. Chem Soc Rev 40:79–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu SG, Luo D, Li N, Zhang W, Lei JL, Li NB, Luo HQ (2016) Water-soluble nonconjugated polymer nanoparticles with strong fluorescence emission for selective and sensitive detection of nitro-explosive picric acid in aqueous medium. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:21700–21709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu SG, Liu T, Li N, Geng S, Lei JL, Li NB, Luo HQ (2017) Polyethylenimine-derived fluorescent nonconjugated polymer dots with reversible dual-signal pH response and logic gate operation. J Phys Chem C 121:6874–6883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lu H, Feng LL, Li SS, Zhang J, Lu HF, Feng SY (2015) Unexpected strong blue photoluminescence produced from the aggregation of unconventional chromophores in novel siloxane-poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Macromolecules 48:476–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhu SJ, Song YB, Shao JR, Zhao XH, Yang B (2015) Non-conjugated polymer dots with crosslink-enhanced emission in the absence of fluorophore units. Angew Chem Int Ed 54:14626–14637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boening DW (2000) Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review. Chemosphere 40:1335–1351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harris HH, Pickering IJ, George GN (2003) The chemical form of mercury in fish. Science 301:1203–1203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ariya PA, Amyot M, Dastoor A, Deeds D, Feinberg A, Kos G, Poulain A, Ryjkov A, Semeniuk K, Subir M, Toyota K (2015) Mercury physicochemical and biogeochemical transformation in the atmosphere and at atmospheric interfaces: a review and future directions. Chem Rev 115:3760–3802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li WC, Tse HF (2015) Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:192–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang RZ, Chen W (2014) Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots: facile synthesis and application as a "turn-off" fluorescent probe for detection of Hg2+ ions. Biosens Bioelectron 55:83–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nolan EM, Lippard SJ (2008) Tools and tactics for the optical detection of mercuric ion. Chem Rev 108:3443–3480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leermakers M, Baeyens W, Quevauviller P, Horvat M (2005) Mercury in environmental samples: speciation, artifacts and validation. Trac-Trends Anal Chem 24:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krishna MVB, Castro J, Brewer TM, Marcus RK (2007) Online mercury speciation through liquid chromatography with particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry detection. J Anal At Spectrom 22:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mor-Piperberg G, Tel-Vered R, Elbaz J, Willner I (2010) Nanoengineered electrically contacted enzymes on DNA scaffolds: functional assemblies for the selective analysis of Hg2+ ions. J Am Chem Soc 132:6878–6879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zarlaida F, Adlim M (2017) Gold and silver nanoparticles and indicator dyes as active agents in colorimetric spot and strip tests for mercury(II) ions: a review. Microchim Acta 184:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu H, Zhang K, Liu Q, Liu Y, Xie M (2017) Visual and fluorescent detection of mercury ions by using a dually emissive ratiometric nanohybrid containing carbon dots and CdTe quantum dots. Microchim Acta 184:1199–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shamsipur M, Safavi A, Mohammadpour Z, Ahmadi R (2016) Highly selective aggregation assay for visual detection of mercury ion based on competitive binding of sulfur-doped carbon nanodots to gold nanoparticles and mercury ions. Microchim Acta 183:2327–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shi D, Yan F, Zhou X, Zheng T, Shi Y, Fu W, Chen L (2016) Preconcentration and fluorometric detection of mercury ions using magnetic core-shell chitosan microspheres modified with a rhodamine spirolactam. Microchim Acta 183:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tang W, Wang Y, Wang P, Di J, Yang J, Wu Y (2016) Synthesis of strongly fluorescent carbon quantum dots modified with polyamidoamine and a triethoxysilane as quenchable fluorescent probes for mercury(II). Microchim Acta 183:2571–2578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li F, Liu C, Yang J, Wang Z, Liu W, Tian F (2014) Mg/N double doping strategy to fabricate extremely high luminescent carbon dots for bioimaging. RSC Adv 4:3201–3205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Amali AJ, Hoshino H, Wu C, Ando M, Xu Q (2014) From metal-organic framework to intrinsically fluorescent carbon nanodots. Chem Eur J 20:8279–8282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun X, Brueckner C, Lei Y (2015) One-pot and ultrafast synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots possessing bright dual wavelength fluorescence emission. Nano 7:17278–17282Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zu F, Yan F, Bai Z, Xu J, Wang Y, Huang Y, Zhou X (2017) The quenching of the fluorescence of carbon dots: a review on mechanisms and applications. Microchim Acta 184:1899–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rani BK, John SA (2018) Fluorogenic mercury ion sensor based on pyrene-amino mercapto thiadiazole unit. J Hazard Mater 343:98–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ren XL, Chen ZZ, Chen XY, Liu J, Tang FQ (2014) Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots. J Lumines 145:330–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jia L, Xu JP, Li D, Pang SP, Fang YA, Song ZG, Ji JA (2010) Fluorescence detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with beta-cyclodextrin-modified quantum dots. Chem Commun 46:7166–7168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu SG, Li N, Fan YZ, Li NB, Luo HQ (2017) Intrinsically fluorescent polymer nanoparticles for sensing Cu2+ in aqueous media and constructing an IMPLICATION logic gate. Sensors Actuators B Chem 243:634–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xia YS, Zhu CQ (2008) Use of surface-modified CdTe quantum dots as fluorescent probes in sensing mercury (II). Talanta 75:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou L, Lin YH, Huang ZZ, Ren JS, Qu XG (2012) Carbon nanodots as fluorescence probes for rapid, sensitive, and label-free detection of Hg2+ and biothiols in complex matrices. Chem Commun 48:1147–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lakowicz JR (2006) Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy. Maryland, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouthwest UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations