Microchimica Acta

, 185:246 | Cite as

Amperometric determination of L-cysteine using a glassy carbon electrode modified with palladium nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide in a Nafion matrix

  • Norazriena Yusoff
  • Perumal Rameshkumar
  • An’amt Mohamed Noor
  • Nay Ming Huang
Original Paper


An amperometric sensor for L-Cys is described which consists of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was modified with reduced graphene oxide placed in a Nafion film and decorated with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). The film was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The PdNPs have an average diameter of about 10 nm and a spherical shape. The modified GCE gives a linear electro-oxidative response to L-Cys (typically at +0.6 V vs. SCE) within the 0.5 to 10 μM concentration range. Other figures of merit include a response time of less than 2 s, a 0.15 μM lower detection limit (at signal to noise ratio of 3), and an analytical sensitivity of 1.30 μA·μM−1·cm−2. The sensor displays selectivity over ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, hydrogen peroxide, urea, and glucose. The modified GCE was applied to the determination of L-Cys in human urine samples and gave excellent recoveries.

Graphical abstract

Spherical palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) on reduced graphene oxide-Nafion (rGO-Nf) films were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. This nanohybrid was used for modifying a glassy carbon electrode to develop a sensor electrode for detecting L-cysteine that has fast response (less than 2 s), low detection limit (0.15 μM), and good sensitivity (0.092 μA μM-1 cm-2).


Graphene materials Nanocomposites Metal nanoparticles Hydrothermal synthesis Electrochemical sensor Cyclic voltammetry Urine sample 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Postgraduate Research Fund (PG122-2014b) from the University of Malaya and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (R/FRGS/A08.00/00648A/001/2016/000368) from Ministry of Higher Education.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2782_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 4446 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryKalasalingam University (Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education)KrishnankoilIndia
  3. 3.Advanced Materials Research Cluster, Faculty of Bioengineering and TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia KelantanJeliMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of EngineeringXiamen University of MalaysiaSepangMalaysia

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