Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, 185:169 | Cite as

A nanocomposite prepared from a polypyrrole deep eutectic solvent and coated onto the inner surface of a steel capillary for electrochemically controlled microextraction of acidic drugs such as losartan

  • Hamid Asiabi
  • Yadollah Yamini
  • Maryam Shamsayei
  • Jamshid Azarnia Mehraban
Original Paper

Abstract

The authors describe a new coating for use in electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction (EC-IT-SPME). It consists of a nanocomposite that was prepared from polypyrrole and deep eutectic solvent (DES) by electrochemical deposition on the inner walls of a stainless steel capillary that serves as a working electrode. The hypertension drug losartan acts as an acidic model analyte. The extraction efficiency, mechanical stability, chemical stability and lifetime of the coating were investigated. It is found to be quite stable in relatively acidic and basic media and to be re-usable >450 times without decrease in extraction efficiency. Its extraction capability in comparison to the commercial polypyrrole coating is better by a factor of 1.5. The coated steel capillary was used as the anode (anion-exchanger), and a platinum electrode was used as the cathode. By passing a sample solution through the electrode, losartan can be extracted by applying a positive potential to the flow. In the next step, losartan is electrochemically desorbed and subjected to HPLC analysis with UV detection. Under optimal conditions, losartan can be quantified with limits of detection that range from 50 to 500 ng L−1 depending on the sample matrix. Response is linear in the 0.1–500 μg L−1 concentration range. The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSDs; in %, for n = 3) are in the range from 2.4–4.6% and from 1.9–3.9%, respectively.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of the preparation of a nano-structured polypyrrole-deep eutectic solvent nanocomposite coating placed on the inner surface of a stainless steel capillary and used for electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction of losartan from biological samples.

Keywords

Anionic drugs Electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction Electrochemical deposition High performance liquid chromatography Steel capillary Plasma Urine 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from Tarbiat Modares University is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2684_MOESM1_ESM.docx (548 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 547 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Eisert R, Pawliszyn J (1997) Automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chem 69:3140–3147.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac970319a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kataoka H (2002) Automated sample preparation using in-tube solid-phase microextraction and its application - a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 373:31–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-002-1269-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu J, Tragas C, Lord H, Pawliszy J (2002) Analysis of polar pesticides in water and wine samples by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 976:357–367.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01072-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Queiroz MEC, Melo LP (2014) Selective capillary coating materials for in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography to determine drugs and biomarkers in biological samples: a review. Anal Chim Acta 826:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2014.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melo LP, Queiroz RHC, Queiroz MEC (2011) Automated determination of rifampicin in plasma samples by in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B 879:2454–2458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asiabi H, Yamini Y, Seidi S, Esrafili A, Rezaei F (2015) Electroplating of nanostructured polyaniline–polypyrrole composite coating in a stainless-steel tube for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction. J Chromatogr A 1397:19–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2015.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asiabi H, Yamini Y, Seidi S, Safari M, Shamsayei M (2016) Evaluation of in-tube solid-phase microextraction method for co-extraction of acidic, basic, and neutral drugs. RSC Adv 6:14049–14058.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA27825B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asiabi H, Yamini Y, Rezaei F, Seidi S (2015) Nanostructured polypyrrole for automated and electrochemically controlled in-tube solid-phase microextraction of cationic nitrogen compounds. Microchim Acta 182:1941–1948.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-015-1534-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Asiabi H, Yamini Y, Seidi S, Shamsayei M, Safari M, Rezaei F (2016) On-line electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction of inorganic selenium followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 922:37–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bagheri H, Aghakhani A, Akbari M, Ayazi Z (2011) Electrospun composite of polypyrrole polyamide as a micro-solid phase extraction sorbent. Anal Bioanal Chem 400:3607–3613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao S, Wu M, Zhao F, Zeng B (2013) Electrochemical preparation of polyaniline–polypyrrole solid-phase microextraction coating and its application in the GC determination of several esters. Talanta 117:146–151.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-4993-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu J, Pawliszyn J (2004) Solid-phase microextraction based on polypyrrole films with different counter ions. Anal Chim Acta 520:257–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.05.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saraji M, Rezaei B, Boroujeni MK, Bidgoli AAH (2013) Polypyrrole/sol–gel composite as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water and vegetable samples. J Chromatogr A 1279:20–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarafraz-Yazdi A, Rounaghi G, Razavipanah I, Vatani H, Amiri A (2014) New polypyrrole carbon nanotubes–silicon dioxide solid-phase microextraction fiber for the preconcentration and determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene using gas liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci 37:2605–2612.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201400178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu Q, Gao F, Yang Y, Zhang B, Wang W, Hu Z, Wang Q (2015) Electrochemical preparation of polyaniline capped Bi2S3nanocomposite and its application in impedimetric DNA biosensor. Sensors Actuators B Chem 207:819–826.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2014.10.120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ho TD, Canestraro AJ, Anderson JL (2011) Ionic liquids in solid-phase microextraction: a review. Anal Chim Acta 695:18–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.03.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Favre C, Abello L, Delabouglise D (1997) Effect of the anion on the level and aging of the conducting state of electropolymerized 3-methylthiophene thin films. Adv Mater 9:722–725.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.19970090909 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu W, Mattes BR (2005) Factors influencing electrochemical actuation of polyaniline fibers in ionic liquids. Synth Met 152:53–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2005.07.122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ai Y, Zhao F, Zeng B (2015) Novel proton-type ionic liquid doped polyaniline for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of amines. Anal Chim Acta 880:60–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.04.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wu M, Zhang H, Zhao F, Zeng B (2014) A novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-ionic liquid composite coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of several alcohols in soft drinks. Anal Chim Acta 850:41–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2014.08.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhao F, Wang M, Ma Y, Zeng B (2011) Electrochemical preparation of polyaniline–ionic liquid based solid phase microextraction fiber and its application in the determination of benzene derivatives. J Chromatogr A 1218:387–391.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.12.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leron RB, Li M (2013) Solubility of carbon dioxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based deep eutectic solvent. Thermochim Acta 551:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    García A, Rodríguez-Juan E, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Rios JJ, Fernández-Bolaños J (2016) Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Food Chem 197:554–561.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh B, Lobo H, Shankarling G (2011) Selective n-alkylation of aromatic primary amines catalyzed by bio-catalyst or deep eutectic solvent. Catal Lett 141:178–182.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10562-010-0479-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leron RB, Li M (2012) High-pressure density measurements for choline chloride: urea deep eutectic solvent and its aqueous mixtures at T = (298.15 to 323.15) K and up to 50 MPa. J Chem Thermodynamics 54:293–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jct.2012.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jhong H, Wong D, Wan C, Wang Y, Wei T (2009) A novel deep eutectic solvent-based ionic liquid used as electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochem Commun 11:209–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2008.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abbott AP, Capper G, McKenzie KJ, Ryder KS (2007) Electrodeposition of zinc–tin alloys from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride. J Electroanal Chem 599:288–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2006.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Matuszewski BK, Constanzer ML, Chavez-Eng CM (2003) Strategies for the assessment of matrix effect in quantitative bioanalytical methods based on HPLC-MS/MS. Anal Chem 75:3019–3030.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac020361s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang M, Wei F, Zhang Y, Nie J, Feng Y (2006) Novel polymer monolith microextraction using a poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith and its application to simultaneous analysis of several angiotensin II receptor antagonists in human urine by capillary zone electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 1102:294–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.10.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nie J, Zhang M, Fan Y, Wen Y, Xiang B, Feng Y (2005) Biocompatible in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to HPLC for the determination of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in human plasma and urine. J Chromatogr B 828:62–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rao RN, Raju SS, Vali RM (2013) Ionic-liquid based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic determination of anti-hypertensives in rat serum. J Chromatogr B 931:174–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.09.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Asiabi
    • 1
  • Yadollah Yamini
    • 1
  • Maryam Shamsayei
    • 1
  • Jamshid Azarnia Mehraban
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations