Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 11, pp 4545–4552 | Cite as

Aptamer-based fluorometric determination of norovirus using a paper-based microfluidic device

  • Xuan Weng
  • Suresh NeethirajanEmail author
Original Paper


The authors describe a rapid and highly sensitive point-of-care device for rapid determination of noroviruses, a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. The assay is based on the use of a norovirus-specific aptamer labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein, and of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene oxide (GO). The fluorescence of the 6-FAM labeled aptamer is quenched by MWCNT or GO. In the presence of norovirus, fluorescence is recovered due to the release of the labeled aptamer from MWCNT or GO. An easy-to-make paper-based microfluidic platform was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane. The quantitation of norovirus was successfully performed. The linear range extends from 13 ng·mL−1 to 13 μg·mL−1 of norovirus. The detection limits are 4.4 ng·mL−1 and 3.3 ng·mL−1, respectively, when using MWCNT or GO. The device is simple and cost-effective, and holds the potential of rapid in-situ visual determination of noroviruses with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. Hence, it provides a new method for early identification of norovirus and a tool for early intervention when preventing the spread of an outbreak.

Graphical Abstract


Biosensor Aptamer Norovirus Paper-based microfluidic device Nitrocellulose membrane Multi-walled carbon nanotubes Graphene oxide 





enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


fluorescence resonance energy transfer


graphene oxide


limit of detection


lateral-flow assays


multi-walled carbon nanotubes


point-of-care testing


reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction



The authors sincerely thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (400705) for funding this study.

Author Contribution

XW and SN designed the study; XW performed experiments, acquired and analyzed data, XW and SN drafted and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2467_MOESM1_ESM.docx (741 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 740 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioNano Laboratory, School of EngineeringUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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