Three-dimensional carbon nanofiber derived from bacterial cellulose for use in a Nafion matrix on a glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous voltammetric determination of trace levels of Cd(II) and Pb(II)

Abstract

The authors describe the preparation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a three-dimensional network structure by one-step carbonization of bacterial cellulose at 800 °C. The 3D CNFs wrapped with Nafion polymer were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which then enables sensitive detection of Cd(II) and Pb(II). Under optimized conditions and at typical stripping peaks of around −0.80 and −0.55 V (vs Ag/AgCl), the electrode exhibits high sensitivity and a wide analytical range of 2–100 μg·L−1 for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The detection limits are 0.38 μg·L−1 for Cd(II) and 0.33 μg·L−1 for Pb(II), respectively. The modified GCE was successfully employed to the determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in both tap water and waste water.

A three-dimensional carbon nanofiber network wrapped with Nafion polymer was employed to prepare a chemically modified electrode, which is shown to enable simultaneous detection of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in both tap water and waste water.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21505154 and 21677171), Xinjiang International Science and Technology Cooperation Project (20166010), 1000-Talent Program (Recruitment Program of Global Expert, In Chinese: Qian-Ren-Ji-Hua), and Project supported by the Special Scientific Research Fund of Agricultural Public Welfare Profession of China (21403014-1). TW acknowledge support from the Artificial Leaf Project Umeå (K&A Wallenberg foundation) and the Swedish Research Council (2013-5252).

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Correspondence to Thomas Wagberg or Xamxikamar Mamat or Guangzhi Hu.

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Qin, D., Gao, S., Wang, L. et al. Three-dimensional carbon nanofiber derived from bacterial cellulose for use in a Nafion matrix on a glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous voltammetric determination of trace levels of Cd(II) and Pb(II). Microchim Acta 184, 2759–2766 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-017-2260-x

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Keywords

  • Green material
  • Bacterial fermentation
  • Freeze drying
  • Carbon materials
  • Immobilization
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Electroanalysis
  • Heavy metals
  • Water analysis