Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 8, pp 2759–2766 | Cite as

Three-dimensional carbon nanofiber derived from bacterial cellulose for use in a Nafion matrix on a glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous voltammetric determination of trace levels of Cd(II) and Pb(II)

  • Danfeng Qin
  • Shanshuang Gao
  • Le Wang
  • Hangjia Shen
  • Nuerbiya Yalikun
  • Parviz Sukhrobov
  • Thomas WagbergEmail author
  • Yujie Zhao
  • Xamxikamar MamatEmail author
  • Guangzhi HuEmail author
Original Paper


The authors describe the preparation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a three-dimensional network structure by one-step carbonization of bacterial cellulose at 800 °C. The 3D CNFs wrapped with Nafion polymer were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which then enables sensitive detection of Cd(II) and Pb(II). Under optimized conditions and at typical stripping peaks of around −0.80 and −0.55 V (vs Ag/AgCl), the electrode exhibits high sensitivity and a wide analytical range of 2–100 μg·L−1 for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The detection limits are 0.38 μg·L−1 for Cd(II) and 0.33 μg·L−1 for Pb(II), respectively. The modified GCE was successfully employed to the determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in both tap water and waste water.

Graphical abstract

A three-dimensional carbon nanofiber network wrapped with Nafion polymer was employed to prepare a chemically modified electrode, which is shown to enable simultaneous detection of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in both tap water and waste water.


Green material Bacterial fermentation Freeze drying Carbon materials Immobilization Scanning electron microscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Electroanalysis Heavy metals Water analysis 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21505154 and 21677171), Xinjiang International Science and Technology Cooperation Project (20166010), 1000-Talent Program (Recruitment Program of Global Expert, In Chinese: Qian-Ren-Ji-Hua), and Project supported by the Special Scientific Research Fund of Agricultural Public Welfare Profession of China (21403014-1). TW acknowledge support from the Artificial Leaf Project Umeå (K&A Wallenberg foundation) and the Swedish Research Council (2013-5252).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2260_MOESM1_ESM.docx (148 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 147 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danfeng Qin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shanshuang Gao
    • 1
  • Le Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hangjia Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nuerbiya Yalikun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Parviz Sukhrobov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas Wagberg
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yujie Zhao
    • 4
  • Xamxikamar Mamat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guangzhi Hu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Plant Resources in Arid Regions, State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang indigenous medicinal plants resource utilizationXinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of ScienceUrumqiChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUmea UniversityUmeaSweden
  4. 4.Ministry of AgricultureAgro-Environmental Protection InstituteTianjinChina

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