Three-dimensional carbon nanofiber derived from bacterial cellulose for use in a Nafion matrix on a glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous voltammetric determination of trace levels of Cd(II) and Pb(II)
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The authors describe the preparation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a three-dimensional network structure by one-step carbonization of bacterial cellulose at 800 °C. The 3D CNFs wrapped with Nafion polymer were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which then enables sensitive detection of Cd(II) and Pb(II). Under optimized conditions and at typical stripping peaks of around −0.80 and −0.55 V (vs Ag/AgCl), the electrode exhibits high sensitivity and a wide analytical range of 2–100 μg·L−1 for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The detection limits are 0.38 μg·L−1 for Cd(II) and 0.33 μg·L−1 for Pb(II), respectively. The modified GCE was successfully employed to the determination of trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in both tap water and waste water.
KeywordsGreen material Bacterial fermentation Freeze drying Carbon materials Immobilization Scanning electron microscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Electroanalysis Heavy metals Water analysis
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (21505154 and 21677171), Xinjiang International Science and Technology Cooperation Project (20166010), 1000-Talent Program (Recruitment Program of Global Expert, In Chinese: Qian-Ren-Ji-Hua), and Project supported by the Special Scientific Research Fund of Agricultural Public Welfare Profession of China (21403014-1). TW acknowledge support from the Artificial Leaf Project Umeå (K&A Wallenberg foundation) and the Swedish Research Council (2013-5252).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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