Highly sensitive and selective voltammetric determination of dopamine using a gold electrode modified with a molecularly imprinted polymeric film immobilized on flaked hollow nickel nanospheres
- 517 Downloads
The authors describe the preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on the surface of electrodeposited hollow nickel nanospheres (hNiNS), and the use of this nanocomposite in an electrochemical sensor for dopamine (DA). The use of the 3-dimensional hNiNS as a support material enlarges the sensing area and conductivity, while the MIP film warrants improved selectivity for DA. Quantification based on the “MIP/gate effect” was performed by employing hexacyanoferrate as the electrochemical probe. Scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to characterize the sensor materials. The electropolymerization condition such as pH value, functional monomer and ratio of template to monomer were optimized. By using dopamine (DA) as a model analyte, the sensor, if operated at 0.1 V vs. SCE, has fairly low detection limit of 1.7 × 10−14 M (at an S/N ratio of 3), two wide assay ranges of 5 × 10−14 to 1 × 10−12 M and 1 × 10−12 to 5 × 10−11 M, and superb selectivity.
KeywordsElectrochemical sensor Cyclic voltammetry Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy MIP Electropolymerization Blood analysis Trace assay Nanocomposite Gate effect Hexacyanoferrate
The project financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81460543, 21575089) and 2015 Key Technical Innovation Project of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- 3.Lin L, Qiu P, Yang L, Cao X, Jin L (2006) Determination of dopamine in rat striatum by microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection on a functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube electrode. Anal Bioanal Chem 384(6):1308–1313. doi: 10.1007/s00216-005-0275-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Vuorensola K, Sirén H, Karjalainen U (2003) Determination of dopamine and methoxycatecholamines in patient urine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and by capillary electrophoresis coupled with spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 788(2):277–289. doi: 10.1016/s1570-0232(02)01037-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Liu X, Zhang XY, Wang LL, Wang YY (2014) A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamol based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 181(11–12):1439–1446. doi: 10.1007/s00604-014-1289-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Yang L, Li X, Xiong Y, Liu X, Li X, Wang M, Yan S, Alshahrani LAM, Liu P, Zhang C (2014) The fabrication of a Co (II) complex and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glass carbon electrode, and its application for the determination of dopamine. J Electroanal Chem 731:14–19. doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2014.07.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Bard AJ, Faulkner LR, Leddy J, Zoski CG (1980) Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications, Vol 2. Wiley New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 30.Li Y, Zhang L, Liu J, Zhou S, Al-Ghanim KA, Mahboob S, Ye BC, Zhang X (2016) A novel sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer on a nanoporous gold leaf modified electrode for warfarin sodium determination. RSC Adv 6:43724–43731. doi: 10.1039/C6RA05553B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Liu Y, Liu J, Tang H, Liu J, Xu B, Yu F, Li Y (2015) Fabrication of highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor by using optimized molecularly imprinted polymers on multi-walledcarbon nanotubes for metronidazole measurement. Sensors Actuators B 206:647–652. doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2014.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Li Y, Liu Y, Yang Y, Yu F, Liu J, Song H, Liu J, Tang H, Ye BC, Sun Z (2015) Novel electrochemical sensing platform based on a molecularly imprinted polymer decorated 3D nanoporous nickel skeleton for ultrasensitive and selective determination of metronidazole. ACS Appl Mater Interface 7(28):15474–15480. doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b03755 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Liu J, Tang H, Zhang B, Deng X, Zhao F, Zuo P, Ye BC, Li Y (2016) Electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer for sensitive and selective determination of metronidazole via two different approaches. Anal Bioanal Chem 408(16):4287–4295. doi: 10.1007/s00216-016-9520-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Liu J, Zhang L, Li L, Song H, Liu Y, Tang H, Li Y (2015) Synthesis of metronidazole imprinted molecularly imprinted polymers by distillation precipitation polymerization and their use as a solid-phase adsorbent and chromatographic filler. J Sep Sci 38:1172–1178. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201401248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar