Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 4, pp 1191–1198 | Cite as

Vortexing/shaking-free solid phase extraction of lead(II) by using an urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microsphere adsorbent

  • Emre Yavuz
  • Şerife Tokalıoğlu
  • Halil Şahan
  • Alican Berberoğlu
  • Şaban Patat
Original Paper


Urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, and zeta potential measurements. It was used as an adsorbent for the solid phase extraction of Pb(II) from water, food and street dust samples prior to its extraction with dilute HCl and its determination by FAAS. Figures of merit include a preconcentration factor of 30, a detection limit of 5.9 μg L−1 and a relative standard deviation of 2.4%. The major advantage of the method is the fast equilibration during extraction without the need for vortexing or shaking. The method was successfully accurated by analyzing certified reference materials (BCR-482 Lichen, TMDA-70 Lake water and RM 8704 Buffalo River Sediment) and by analyzing spiked sea water, wastewater, well water, apple, eggplant, broccoli, ginger, lentil and street dust samples.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of the preparation of urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres and their application to the solid phase extraction of lead(II) ions


Preconcentration Flame atomic absorption spectrometry X-ray diffraction Zeta potential Scanning electron microscopy Brunauer–Emmett–Teller 


Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2109_MOESM1_ESM.docx (80 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 80 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emre Yavuz
    • 1
  • Şerife Tokalıoğlu
    • 1
  • Halil Şahan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alican Berberoğlu
    • 1
  • Şaban Patat
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Chemistry DepartmentErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  2. 2.Nanotechnology and Research CenterErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey

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