Vortexing/shaking-free solid phase extraction of lead(II) by using an urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microsphere adsorbent
- 203 Downloads
Urchin-like NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, and zeta potential measurements. It was used as an adsorbent for the solid phase extraction of Pb(II) from water, food and street dust samples prior to its extraction with dilute HCl and its determination by FAAS. Figures of merit include a preconcentration factor of 30, a detection limit of 5.9 μg L−1 and a relative standard deviation of 2.4%. The major advantage of the method is the fast equilibration during extraction without the need for vortexing or shaking. The method was successfully accurated by analyzing certified reference materials (BCR-482 Lichen, TMDA-70 Lake water and RM 8704 Buffalo River Sediment) and by analyzing spiked sea water, wastewater, well water, apple, eggplant, broccoli, ginger, lentil and street dust samples.
KeywordsPreconcentration Flame atomic absorption spectrometry X-ray diffraction Zeta potential Scanning electron microscopy Brunauer–Emmett–Teller
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 15.Jiang HM, Yan ZP, Zhao Y, Hu X, Lian HZ (2012) Zincon-immobilized silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for solid-phase extraction and determination of trace lead in natural and drinking waters by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 94:251–256Google Scholar
- 16.Alcaraz-Espinoza J. J, Chávez-Guajardo A. E, Medina-Llamas J. C, Andrade C. A. S, de Melo C. P (2015) Hierarchical composite polyaniline – (electrospun polystyrene) fibers applied to heavy metal remediation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7: 7231–7240Google Scholar
- 24.Hua M, Zhang S, Pan B, Zhang W, Lv L, Zhang Q (2012) Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review. J Hazard Mater:317–331Google Scholar
- 25.Dubala D. P, Gomez-Romero P, Sankapald, B R, Holze R (2015) Nickel cobaltite as an emerging material for supercapacitors: an overview. Nano Energy 11: 377–399Google Scholar
- 38.Karimi M, Shabani AMH, Dadfarnia S (2016) Deep eutectic solvent-mediated extraction for ligand-less preconcentration of lead and cadmium from environmental samples using magnetic nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 183:563–571Google Scholar