Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 1, pp 315–321 | Cite as

Microchip HPLC separations monitored simultaneously by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and fluorescence detection

  • David Geissler
  • Josef J. Heiland
  • Carsten Lotter
  • Detlev Belder
Short Communication

Abstract

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) was evaluated and applied to process monitoring in chip-based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By stimulating the C≡N-vibration of acetonitrile via laser excitation at 1064 nm and 858.3 nm, solvent gradients can be monitored in real-time. The approach can also be applied to indirect detection, which is exemplarily shown for the separation of short chain alcohols with an eluent containing acetonitrile. CARS was also combined with epi-fluorescence detection by integrating a 365 nm LED as a third excitation source. This allows fluorescent analytes to be detected in parallel to tracing the acetonitrile fraction of the eluent by CARS. This was applied to separate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within 120 s on custom HPLC glass chips using gradient elution. In this proof of concept study, presenting the first application of CARS in chromatography, the percentage of acetonitrile in the eluent or rather high amounts of alcohols can be traced. If combined with fluorescence, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at the 1 μg·mL−1 range.

Graphical abstract

Parallel coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and epi-fluorescence detection is realized for microchip liquid chromatography (chip-HPLC) for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Solvent gradients and dead time (t0) can be monitored in real-time by stimulating the acetonitrile C≡N vibration.

Keywords

CARS Raman Laser excitation Epi-fluorescence detection PAHs Nonlinear optics Liquid chromatorgraphy Microfluidics Separation science Coumarin 120 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the AIF for funding. The author Josef J. Heiland would like to thank the Studienstiftung des dt. Volkes for the financial support in form of a PhD-scholarship. The authors thank Dr. S. Nagl for his helpful support.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2016_2012_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1899 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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