Microchimica Acta

, Volume 183, Issue 10, pp 2697–2703

Nanogapped impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of 16 kDa heat shock protein against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • Subash C. B. Gopinath
  • Veeradasan Perumal
  • Ramanujam Kumaresan
  • Thangavel Lakshmipriya
  • Haarindraprasad Rajintraprasad
  • Balakrishnan S. Rao
  • M. K. Md Arshad
  • Yeng Chen
  • Norito Kotani
  • Uda Hashim
Original Paper


The 16 kDa heat shock protein (16 kDa HSP) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), expressed during the growth phase of MT, is a potential target in diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB). We describe here a method for impedimetric determination of the antigen by using a nanogapped dielectric surface consisting of a silver support coated with a thin finger-shaped coating made from zinc oxide and gold and patterned through a lift-off process. The electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface chemical functionalization and immobilization of antibody against the 16 kDa HSP was evidenced by FTIR. In order to improve the detection limit, the antigen was conjugated to 10 nm gold nanoparticles. The resulting biosensor is capable of detecting the 16 kDa HSP in concentrations as low as 100 fM. The method covers a wide analytical range that extends from 100 fM to 1 nM.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of the nanogapped impedimetric immunosensor for the diagnosis of tuberculosis


ZnO Gold Nanoparticle Gold surface Impedance Immunosensor Dielectric sensor Nanolayer Silicon wafer Surface chemistry Tubercle bacillus 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subash C. B. Gopinath
    • 1
    • 2
  • Veeradasan Perumal
    • 1
  • Ramanujam Kumaresan
    • 3
  • Thangavel Lakshmipriya
    • 1
  • Haarindraprasad Rajintraprasad
    • 1
  • Balakrishnan S. Rao
    • 1
  • M. K. Md Arshad
    • 1
  • Yeng Chen
    • 4
    • 5
  • Norito Kotani
    • 3
  • Uda Hashim
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Nano Electronic EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisKangarMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Bioprocess EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  3. 3.Research Institute of Biomolecule Metrology Company Ltd.TsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  5. 5.Oral Cancer Research & Coordinating Center (OCRCC), Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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