Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, Volume 180, Issue 5–6, pp 415–421 | Cite as

Speciation of arsenite and arsenate by electrothermal AAS following ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

  • Sasan RabiehEmail author
  • Mozhgan Bagheri
  • Britta Planer-Friedrich
Original Paper

Abstract

We have developed a new method for the microextraction and speciation of arsenite and arsenate species. It is based on ionic liquid dispersive liquid liquid microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenite is chelated with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate at pH 2 and then extracted into the fine droplets of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluormethylsulfonyl) imide which acts as the extractant. As(V) remains in the aqueous phase and is then reduced to As(III). The concentration of As(V) can be calculated as the difference between total inorganic As and As(III). The pH values, chelating reagent concentration, types and volumes of extraction and dispersive solvent, and centrifugation time were optimized. At an enrichment factor of 255, the limit of detection and the relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of 1.0 μg L−1 As(III) are 13 ng L−1 and 4.9 %, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of As(III) and As(V) in spiked samples of natural water, with relative recoveries in the range of 93.3–102.1 % and 94.5–101.1 %, respectively.

Figure

Speciation of arsenite and arsenate by ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction - electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

Keywords

[BMIM][NTf2Arsenic Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction ETAAS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the German Research Foundation for base funding within the Emmy Noether program to Britta Planer-Friedrich (Grant PL 302/3-1). We would also like to thank Prof. Dr. Stefan Peiffer at University of Bayreuth for providing access to the instrumental (ETAAS) facility. Dr. Markus Bauer and Martina Rohr are gratefully acknowledged for their valuable suggestions on ETAAS analysis and Uwe Kunkel for providing river water samples.

Supplementary material

604_2013_946_MOESM1_ESM.doc (37 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 37 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Rossman TG, Uddin AN, Burns FJ (2004) Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:394–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hernandez-Zavala A, Valenzuela OL, Matousek T, Drobna Z, Dedina J, Garcia-Vargas GG, Thomas DJ, Del Razo LM, Styblo M (2008) Speciation of arsenic in exfoliated urinary bladder epithelial cells from individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 116:1656–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen YC, Guo YL, Su HJ, Hsueh YM, Smith TJ, Ryan LM, Lee MS, Chao SC, Lee JY, Christiani DC (2003) Arsenic methylation and skin cancer risk in Southwestern Taiwan. J Occup Environ Med 45:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rabieh S, Hirner AV, Matschullat J (2008) Determination of arsenic species in human urine using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). J Anal At Spectrom 23:544–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG (2002) A review of the source, behavior and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl Geochem 17:517–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, First addendum to third edition, Volume 1: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf
  8. 8.
    Mushak P (2000) Arsenic and old laws, a scientific and public health analysis of arsenic occurrence in drinking water, its health effects, and EPA’s outdated arsenic water standard. http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/arsenic/chap1.asp
  9. 9.
    Dapaah AR, Ayame A (1997) Determination of arsenic in environmental samples by FI-HGAAS following solvent extraction preconcentration and back-extraction. Anal Sci 13:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yalcin S, Le XC (2001) Speciation of arsenic using solid phase extraction cartridges. J Environ Monit 3:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mester Z, Sturgeon R, Pawliszyn J (2001) Solid phase microextraction as a tool for trace element speciation. Spectrochim Acta B 56:233–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tang AN, Ding GS, Yan XP (2005) Cloud point extraction for the determination of As(III) in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 67:942–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shemirani F, Baghdadi M, Ramezani M (2005) Preconcentration and determination of ultra trace amounts of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in tap water and total arsenic in biological samples by cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 65:882–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chamsaz M, Arbab-Zavar MH, Nazari S (2003) Determination of arsenic by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using headspace liquid phase microextraction after in situ hydride generation. J Anal At Spectrom 18:1279–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fragueiro S, Lavilla I, Bendicho C (2004) Headspace sequestration of arsine onto a Pd(II)-containing aqueous drop as a preconcentration method for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 59:851–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang P, Peng L, Yan P (2009) Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction separation and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchim Acta 166:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rivas RE, Lopez-Garcia I, Hernandez-Cordoba M (2009) Speciation of very low amounts of arsenic and antimony in waters using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 64:329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Han D, Row KH (2012) Trends in liquid-phase microextraction, and its application to environmental and biological samples. Microchim Acta 176:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rezaee M, Assadi Y, Millani Hosseini MR, Aghaee E, Ahmadi F, Berijani S (2006) Determination of organic compounds in water using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. J Chromatogr A 1116:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martinis EM, Berton P, Monasterio RP, Wuilloud RG (2010) Emerging ionic liquid-based techniques for total-metal and metal-speciation analysis. Trends Anal Chem 29:1184–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Safavi A, Maleki N, Bagheri M (2007) Modification of chemical performance of dopants in xerogel films with entrapped ionic liquid. J Mater Chem 17:1674–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bagheri M, Rodriguez H, Swatloski RP, Spear SK, Daly DT, Rogers RD (2008) Ionic liquid-based preparation of cellulose-dendrimer films as solid supports for enzyme immobilization. Biomacromolecules 9:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wasserscheid P, Keim W (2000) Ionic liquids-new solutions for transition metal catalysis. Angew Chem Int Ed 39:3772–3789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yousefi SR, Ahmadi SJ (2011) Development a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry using microsample introduction system for preconcentration and determination of cobalt in water and saline samples. Microchim Acta 172:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Majidi B, Shemirani F (2012) Salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction of Cr(VI) ionusing an ionic liquid for preconcentration prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchim Acta 176:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yuan C, Liang P, Zhang Y (2011) Determination of trace silver in environmental samples by room temperature ionic liquid-based preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchim Acta 175:333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Berton P, Wuilloud RG (2010) Highly selective ionic liquid-based microextraction method for sensitive trace cobalt determination in environmental and biological samples. Anal Chim Acta 662:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Monasterio RP, Wuillound RG (2010) Ionic liquid as ion-pairing reagent for liquid–liquid microextraction and preconcentration of arsenic species in natural waters followed by ETAAS. J Anal At Spectrom 25:1485–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu JF, Chi YG, Jiang GB (2005) Screening the extractability of some typical environmental pollutants by ionic liquids in liquid-phase microextraction. J Sep Sci 28:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang Q, Minami H, Inoue S, Atsuya I (2004) Differential determination of trace amounts of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in seawater by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration by coprecipitation with a nickel–pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex. Anal Chim Acta 508:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu JF, Jönsson JA, Jiang GB (2005) Application of ionic liquids in analytical chemistry. Trends Anal Chem 24:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang J, Pei Y, Zhao Y, Hu Z (2005) Recovery of amino acids by imidazolium based ionic liquids from aqueous media. Green Chem 7:196–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heinrichs G (1996) Arsenkonzentrationen in Grundwässern. In: Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Bereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Heft 12, Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt der Universität Würzburg (Hsrg.)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huang C, Xie W, Li X, Zhang J (2011) Speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental waters using magnetic solid phase extraction and preconcentration followed by ICP-MS. Microchim Acta 173:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasan Rabieh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mozhgan Bagheri
    • 3
  • Britta Planer-Friedrich
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of ChemistryShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Environmental Geochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth SciencesUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany
  3. 3.Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology DepartmentMaterials and Energy Research CenterKarajIran
  4. 4.Environmental Geochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Earth SciencesUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations