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Electrochemical lectin based biosensors as a label-free tool in glycomics

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Abstract

Glycans and other saccharide moieties attached to proteins and lipids, or present on the surface of a cell, are actively involved in numerous physiological or pathological processes. Their structural flexibility (that is based on the formation of various kinds of linkages between saccharides) is making glycans superb "identity cards". In fact, glycans can form more "words" or "codes" (i.e., unique sequences) from the same number of "letters" (building blocks) than DNA or proteins. Glycans are physicochemically similar and it is not a trivial task to identify their sequence, or—even more challenging—to link a given glycan to a particular physiological or pathological process. Lectins can recognise differences in glycan compositions even in their bound state and therefore are most useful tools in the task to decipher the "glycocode". Thus, lectin-based biosensors working in a label-free mode can effectively complement the current weaponry of analytical tools in glycomics.This review gives an introduction into the area of glycomics and then focuses on the design, analytical performance, and practical utility of lectin-based electrochemical label-free biosensors for the detection of isolated glycoproteins or intact cells.

Scheme of the lectin biosensor operated in a label-free format of analysis for detection of a glycoprotein

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Acknowledgement

The financial support from Slovak scientific grant agency VEGA 2/0127/10 and from the Slovak research and development agency APVV 0282-11 is acknowledged. This contribution/publication was the result of the project implementation: Centre for materials, layers and systems for applications and chemical processes under extreme conditions—stage II, supported by the Research and Development Operational Program funded by the ERDF. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n. 311532.

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Bertók, T., Katrlík, J., Gemeiner, P. et al. Electrochemical lectin based biosensors as a label-free tool in glycomics. Microchim Acta 180, 1–13 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-012-0876-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-012-0876-4

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