Microchimica Acta

, Volume 175, Issue 3–4, pp 323–331 | Cite as

Disposable solid state probe for optical screening of chlorpromazine

  • Joana Rafaela Lara Guerreiro
  • Maria Goreti Ferreira SalesEmail author
Original Paper


We are presenting a simple, low-cost and rapid solid-state optical probe for screening chlorpromazine (CPZ) in aquacultures. The method exploits the colourimetric reaction between CPZ and Fe(III) ion that occurs at a solid/liquid interface, the solid layer consisting of ferric iron entrapped in a layer of plasticized PVC. If solutions containing CPZ are dropped onto such a layer, a colour change occurs from light yellow to dark pink or even light blue, depending on the concentration of CPZ. Visual inspection enables the concentration of CPZ to be estimated. The resulting colouration was also monitored by digital image collection for a more accurate quantification. The three coordinates of the hue, saturation and lightness system were obtained by standard image processing along with mathematical data treatment. The parameters affecting colour were assessed and optimized. Studies were conducted by visible spectrophotometry and digital image acquisition, respectively. The response of the optimized probe towards the concentration of CPZ was tested for several mathematical transformations of the colour coordinates, and a linear relation was found for the sum of hue and luminosity. The limit of detection is 50 μM (corresponding to about 16 μg per mL). The probe enables quick screening for CPZ in real water samples with prior sample treatment.


Chlorpromazine Colourimetry Optical probe Aquaculture 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/FEDER, by means of project PTDC/AGR-AAM/68359/2006.

Supplementary material

604_2011_671_MOESM1_ESM.doc (44 kb)
Electronic Supplementary Material (DOC 44 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Rafaela Lara Guerreiro
    • 1
  • Maria Goreti Ferreira Sales
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.BioMark, Sensor Research/Instituto Superior de Engenharia do PortoPortoPortugal

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