Disposable solid state probe for optical screening of chlorpromazine
- 172 Downloads
We are presenting a simple, low-cost and rapid solid-state optical probe for screening chlorpromazine (CPZ) in aquacultures. The method exploits the colourimetric reaction between CPZ and Fe(III) ion that occurs at a solid/liquid interface, the solid layer consisting of ferric iron entrapped in a layer of plasticized PVC. If solutions containing CPZ are dropped onto such a layer, a colour change occurs from light yellow to dark pink or even light blue, depending on the concentration of CPZ. Visual inspection enables the concentration of CPZ to be estimated. The resulting colouration was also monitored by digital image collection for a more accurate quantification. The three coordinates of the hue, saturation and lightness system were obtained by standard image processing along with mathematical data treatment. The parameters affecting colour were assessed and optimized. Studies were conducted by visible spectrophotometry and digital image acquisition, respectively. The response of the optimized probe towards the concentration of CPZ was tested for several mathematical transformations of the colour coordinates, and a linear relation was found for the sum of hue and luminosity. The limit of detection is 50 μM (corresponding to about 16 μg per mL). The probe enables quick screening for CPZ in real water samples with prior sample treatment.
KeywordsChlorpromazine Colourimetry Optical probe Aquaculture
The authors acknowledge the financial support from FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/FEDER, by means of project PTDC/AGR-AAM/68359/2006.
- 1.Guidelines for risk-based fish inspection (2009) Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). Food and nutrition Paper 90 Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- 2.Huss HH (2003) Assessment and management of seafood safety and quality. Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). Fisheries Technical Paper 444.Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- 3.Commission Regulation 37/2010 Commission Regulation (EU) No 37/2010 of 22 December 2009 on pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin, Off. J. Eur. Uniao. L 15/1 (2010).Google Scholar
- 24.Basavaiah K, Krishnamurthy G (1999) Spectrophotometric determination of some phenothiazine drugs acting on the central nervous system using hexacyanoferrate(III). Ann Chim 89:623Google Scholar
- 25.Elansary AL, Elhawary WF, Issa YM, Ahmed AF (1999) Application of ion-pairs in pharmaceutical analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of promazine, chlorpromazine, promethazine, imipramine and ciprofloxacin hydrochlorides with sodium cobaltinitrite. Anal Lett 32:2255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Karpińska J, Kojlo A, Grudniewska A, Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz H (1996) The improved flow-injection method for the assay of phenothiazine neuroleptics in pharmaceutical preparations using Fe(III) ions. Pharmazie 51:950Google Scholar
- 30.Gupta RR (1988) Phenothiazines and 1, 4-benzothiazines:chemical and biomedical aspects. Bioactive Molecules 4:861Google Scholar
- 31.Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz H, Karpinska J, Kuzmicka L (2009) Analytical applications of reactions of Iron(III) and Hexacyanoferrate(III) with 2,10-disubstituted phenothiazines. Int J Anal Chem 2009:8Google Scholar
- 32.Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz H, Karpinska J (2003) Analytical studies and application of reaction of promazine and thioridazine hydrochlorides with some oxidants. Acta Poloniae Pharm 60:409Google Scholar
- 33.Misiuk W, Kuzmicka L, Mielech K, Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz H (2001) Examination of iron (III) and hexacyanoferrate (III) ions as reagents for the spectrophotometric determination of promazine and perazine. Acta Poloniae Pharm 58:421Google Scholar