Microchimica Acta

, Volume 152, Issue 3–4, pp 239–247 | Cite as

Control of the Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized by CVD for Application in Electrochemical Biosensors

  • Izaskun BusteroEmail author
  • García Ainara
  • Obieta Isabel
  • Muñoz Roberto
  • Rincón Inés
  • Arteche Amaya


Interest in carbon nanotubes (CNT) has grown at a very rapid rate in the last decade. Their interesting physical and chemical properties open attractive possibilities in many application areas. These properties depend on the process conditions during synthesis and on subsequent purification steps. Recent studies have demonstrated that CNT can promote the electron transfer of biomolecules. These exceptional properties make them attractive for use in electrochemical biosensors.

Multi walled nanotubes have been synthesized by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method using methane as a carbon source and Ni–Al2O3–SiO2 as the catalyst. The influence of the variation of certain reaction parameters such as feed gas composition, catalyst mass, temperature and reaction time in the yield of the CVD process has been established. In addition, the structural and chemical characteristics of the CNTs have been studied and a purification process to eliminate the catalyst and amorphous carbon has been developed that involves a gaseous oxidative process and acid treatment. The efficiency of the purification step has been determined by analytical techniques.

Atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic spectroscopy are the characterization techniques employed in this work.

Key words: Carbon nanotubes; CVD; functionalization. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Iijima, S 1991Nature35456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bethune, D S, Kiang, C H, DeVries, M, Gorman, G, Savoy, R, Vazquez, J, Beyers, R 1993Nature363603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Saito, Y, Inagaki, M 1993Jpn J Appl Phys32954Google Scholar
  4. Iijima, S 1993Mater Sci Eng B19172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Journet, C, Maser, W K, Bernier, P, Loiseau, A, Lamy de la Cahpelle, M, Lefrant, S, Deniard, P, Lee, R, Fischer, J E 1997Nature388756Google Scholar
  6. Guo, T, Nikolaev, P, Rinzler, A G, Tomanek, D, Colbert, D T, Smalley, R E 1995J Phys Chem9910694Google Scholar
  7. Thess, A, Lee, R, Nikolaev, P, Dai, H, Petit, P, Robert, J, Xu, C H, Lee, Y H, Kim, S G, Rinzler, A G, Colbert, D T, Scuseria, G E, Tomanek, D, Fisher, J E, Smalley, R E 1996Science273483Google Scholar
  8. Li, W Z, Xie, S S, Qian, L X, Chang, B H, Sou, B S, Zhou, W Y, Zhao, R A, Wang, G 1996Science2741701Google Scholar
  9. Ren, Z F, Huang, Z P, Wang, D Z, Wen, J G, Xu, J W, Wang, J H, Calvet, L E, Chen, J, Klemic, J F, Reed, M A 1999Appl Phys Lett751086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sinnot, S B, Andrews, R, Qian, D, Rao, A M, Mao, Z, Dickey, E C, Derbyshire, F 1999Chem Phys Lett31525Google Scholar
  11. Li, W Z, Wen, J G, Ren, Z F 2002Appl Phys A74397Google Scholar
  12. Ivanov, V, Nagy, J B, Lambin, Ph, Lucas, A, Zhang, X B, Zhang, Z F, Bernaerts, D, Van Tendeloo, G, Amelinckx, S, Van Landuyt, J 1994Chem Phys Lett223329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yudasaka, M, Kikuchi, R, Matsui, T, Ohki, Y, Yoshimura, S, Ota, E 1995Appl Phys Lett672477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hernadi, K, Fonsenca, A, Nagy, J B, Bernaerts, D, Lucas, A 1996Carbon341249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Endo, M, Takeuchi, K, Igarashi, S, Kobori, K, Shiraishi, M, Kroto, H W 1993J Phys Chem Solids541841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chhowalla, M, Teo, K B K, Duvati, C, Rupesinghe, N L, Amaratunga, G A J, Ferrari, A C, Roy, D, Robertson, J, Milne, W I 2001J Appl Phys905308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang, Z P, Wang, D Z, Wen, J G, Sennett, M, Gibson, H, Ren, Z F 2002Appl Phys Mat Sci Process74387Google Scholar
  18. Park, J B, Choi, G S, Cho, Y S, Hong, S Y, Kim, D, Choi, S Y, Lee, J H, Cho, K I 2002J Crystal Growth244211Google Scholar
  19. Murakami, Y, Miyauchi, Y, Chiashi, S, Maruyama, S 2003Chem Phys Lett37453Google Scholar
  20. Lee, C J, Lyu, S C, Kim, H W, Park, C Y, Yang, C W 2002Chem Phys Lett359115Google Scholar
  21. Piao, L Y, Li, Y D, Chen, J L, Chang, L, Ling, J Y S 2002Catalyst Today74145Google Scholar
  22. Alexandrescu, R, Crunteanu, A, Morjan, R E, Morjan, I, Rohmund, F, Falk, L K L, Ledoux, G, Huisken, F 2003Infrared Phys Technol4443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kong, J, Cassell, A M, Dai, J 1998Chem Phys Lett292567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kong, J, Soh, H, Cassell, A, Quate, C F, Dai, H 1998Nature395878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dai, H, Kong, J, Zhou, C, Franklin, N, Tombler, T, Cassell, A, Fan, S, Chapline, M 1999J Phys Chem B10311246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cassel, A, Raymakers, J, Kong, J, Dai, H 1999J Phys Chem1036484Google Scholar
  27. Su, M, Zheng, B, Liu, J 2000Chem Phys Lett322321Google Scholar
  28. Flahaut, E, Govindaraj, A, Peigney, A, Laurant, C, Rao, C N 1999Chem Phys Lett300236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Colomer, J-F, Stephan, C, Lefrant, S, Tendeloo, G V, Willems, I, Kánya, Z, Fonseca, A, Lauraent, C, Nagy, J B 2000Chem Phys Lett31783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ren, Z F, Huang, Z P, Xu, J W, Wang, J H, Bush, P, Siegel, M P, Provencio, P N 1998Science2821105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cui, H, Yang, X, Baylor, L R, Lowndes, D H 2005Appl Phys Lett8653110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ryu, K M, Kang, M Y, Kim, Y D, Jeon, H T 2003Jap J Appl Phys Part 1423578Google Scholar
  33. Wang, S G, Zhang, Q, Yoon, S F, Ahn, J 2003Scripta Materialia48409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nihei, M, Kawabata, A, Awano, Y 2005Jap J Appl Phys Part 1 – regular papers short notes & review papers441626Google Scholar
  35. Mo, Yh, Kibria, A K M F, Nahm, K S 2001Synth Met122443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaatz, F H, Siegal, M P, Overmyer, D L, Provencio, P P, Jackson, J L 2003Mat Sci Engin C-Biomimetic Supramolecular Syst23141Google Scholar
  37. Lee, W Y, Liao, T, Juang, Z Y, Tsai, C H 2004Diamond Related Mat131232Google Scholar
  38. Makris, Th D, Giorgi, L, Giorgi, R, Lisi, N, Salernitano, E 2005Diamond Related Mat14815Google Scholar
  39. Wang, Y, Wei, F, Gu, G, Yu, H 2002Physica B323327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Qian, W, Liu, T, Wei, F, Wang, Z, Luo, G, Yu, H, Li, Z 2003Carbon412613Google Scholar
  41. Qian, W H, Liu, T A, Wang, Z W, Wei, F A, Li, Z F, Luo, G H, Li, Y D 2004Appl Catalysis A General260223Google Scholar
  42. Liu, J, Rinzler, A G, Dai, H, Hafner, J H, Bradley, R K, Boul, P J, Lu, A, Iverson, T, Shelimov, K, Fuman, C B, Rodríguez-Macias, F, Shon, Y S, Lee, T R, Colbert, D T, Smalley, R E 1998Science2801253Google Scholar
  43. Rinzler, A G, Liu, J, Dai, H, Nikolaev, P, Huffman, C B, Rodriguez Macías, F J, Boul, P J, Lu, A H, Heymann, D, Colbert, D T, Lee, R S, Fisher, J E, Rao, A M, Eklund, P C, Smalley, R E 1998Appl Phys A6729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dillon, A C, Gennet, T, Jones, K M, Alleman, J L, Parilla, P A, Heben, M J 1999Adv Mater111354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shim, M, Kam, N W S, Chen, R J, Li, Y, Dai, H 2002Nano Lett2285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang, W, Taylor, S, Fu, K, Lin, Y, Zhang, D, Hanks, T W, Rao, A M, Sun, Y-P 2002Nano Lett2311Google Scholar
  47. Chen, R J, Zhang, Y, Wang, D, Dai, H 2001J Am Chem Soc1233838Google Scholar
  48. Wang, J 2005Electroanalysis177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Davis, J J, Green, M L H, Hill, H A O, Leung, Y C, Sadler, P J, Sloan, J, Xavier, A V, Tsang, S C 1998Inorg Chim Acta272261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pedano, M L, Rivas, G A 2004Electrochem Commun610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lin, Y, Lu, F, Tu, Y, Ren, Z 2004Nano Letters4191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dong, L, Jiao, J, Foxley, S, Tuggle, D W, Mosher, C L, Grathoff, G H 2002J Nanosci Nanotechnol2155Google Scholar
  53. Jorio, A, Pimenta, M A, Souza Filho, A G, Saito, R, Dresselhaus, G, Dresselhaus, M S 2003New J Phys5139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hu, H, Bhowmik, P, Zhao, B, Hamon, M A, Itkis, M E, Haddon, R C 2001Chem Phys Lett34525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhao, C, Ji, L, Liu, H, Hu, G, Zhang, S, Yang, M, Yang, Z 2004J Solid State Chem1774394Google Scholar
  56. Souza Fiho, A G, Jorio, A, Samsonidze Ge, G, Dresselhaus, G, Saito, R, Dresselhaus, M S 2003Nanotechnology141130Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izaskun Bustero
    • 1
    Email author
  • García Ainara
    • 1
  • Obieta Isabel
    • 1
  • Muñoz Roberto
    • 1
  • Rincón Inés
    • 1
  • Arteche Amaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Fundación InasmetSan SebastiánSpain

Personalised recommendations