Skip to main content

Acoustic Emission Response Mechanism of Hydraulic Fracturing in Different Coal and Rock: A Laboratory Study

Abstract

To examine the influence of lithology on the microseismic response mechanism during the process of coal and rock hydraulic fracturing (HF), we selected four lithological samples of coal, sandstone, shale, and mudstone, which are commonly found in coal-measure strata. The acoustic emission (AE) cumulative counts, AE energy, crack classification, AE peak frequency, and AE position of the four samples under natural conditions were studied, and the laws of crack propagation and evolution in the process of coal and rock HF were explained. We discovered the phenomenon of “bimodal frequency bands” during the HF of coal and rock samples. The results showed that the pressure curves and AE cumulative counts of the coal samples exhibited the largest fluctuations. The power-law distribution of AE energy has a discrete effect in the high-energy region and a plateau effect in the low-energy region. The AE energy power-law indexes of the mudstone samples are the largest, with the values of 0.64 and 0.61, whereas those of the shale samples are the smallest, with the values of 0.44 and 0.45. The crack classification of the samples of coal is mainly shear cracks, and the crack classification of the samples of sandstone, shale and mudstone is mainly tensile cracks. It is proposed to regard frequency band II as the dominant frequency band for HF in the coal, sandstone, and mudstone samples and frequency band I as the dominant frequency band for HF in shale samples.

Highlights

  • The phenomenon of “bimodal frequency bands” during hydraulic fracturing of coal and rock samples was discovered.

  • The AE energy power-law indexes and damage patterns during hydraulic fracturing of coal and rock were revealed.

  • The dominant frequency bands of different coal and rock rupture were found.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  • Baro J, Corral A, Illa X et al (2013) Statistical similarity between the compression of a porous material and earthquakes. Phys Rev Lett 110(8):088702

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bobrova M, Stanchits S, Shevtsova A, Filev E, Stukachev V, Shayahmetov T (2021) Laboratory investigation of hydraulic fracture behavior of unconventional reservoir rocks. Geosciences 11(7):292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cai M, Kaiser PK, Morioka H et al (2007) FLAC/PFC coupled numerical simulation of AE in large-scale underground excavations. Int J Rock Mech Min 44(4):550–564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen L, Chen W, Chen Y, Benyamin L, Li A (2015) Investigation of hydraulic fracture propagation using a post-peak control system coupled with acoustic emission. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48(3):1233–1248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Du K, Li X, Tao M, Wang S (2020) Experimental study on acoustic emission (AE) characteristics and crack classification during rock fracture in several basic lab tests. Int J Rock Mech Min 133:104411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo Y, Deng P, Yang C, Chang X, Wang L, Zhou J (2018) Experimental investigation on hydraulic fracture propagation of carbonate rocks under different fracturing fluids. Energies 11(12):3502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • He M, Zhao F, Zhang Y, Shuai Du, Guan L (2015) Feature evolution of dominant frequency components in acoustic emissions of instantaneous strain-type granitic rockburst simulation tests. Rock Soil Mech 36(1):1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofmann H, Babadagli T, Zimmermann G (2014) Hot water generation for oil sands processing from enhanced geothermal systems: process simulation for different hydraulic fracturing scenarios. Appl Energ 113:524–547

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hu Q, Liu L, Li Q et al (2020) Experimental investigation on crack competitive extension during hydraulic fracturing in coal measures strata. Fuel 265:117003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ishida T (2001) Acoustic emission monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in laboratory and field. Constr Build Mater 15(5–6):283–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang Z, Li Q, Hu Q et al (2019) Underground microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracturing operation for CBM reservoirs in a coal mine. Energy Sci Eng 7(3):986–999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang Z, Li Q, Hu Q et al (2020) Acoustic emission characteristics in hydraulic fracturing of stratified rocks: a laboratory study. Powder Technol 371:267–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li Q, Lin B, Zhai C (2015) A new technique for preventing and controlling coal and gas outburst hazard with pulse hydraulic fracturing: a case study in Yuwu coal mine. China Nat Hazards 75(3):2931–2946

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li LR, Deng JH, Zheng L, Liu JF (2017) Dominant frequency characteristics of acoustic emissions in white marble during direct tensile tests. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(5):1337–1346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li N, Zhang S, Zou Y, Ma X, Wu S, Zhang Y (2018) Experimental analysis of hydraulic fracture growth and acoustic emission response in a layered formation. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(4):1047–1062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li N, Zhang S, Wang H et al (2021a) Thermal shock effect on acoustic emission response during laboratory hydraulic fracturing in Laizhou granite. Rock Mech Rock Eng 54(9):4793–4807

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li N, Fang L, Sun W, Zhang X, Chen D (2021b) Evaluation of borehole hydraulic fracturing in coal seam using the microseismic monitoring method. Rock Mech Rock Eng 54(2):607–625

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang Y, Cheng Y, Zou Q, Wang W, Ma Y, Li Q (2017) Response characteristics of coal subjected to hydraulic fracturing: an evaluation based on real-time monitoring of borehole strain and acoustic emission. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 38:402–411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liangwei L, Wenbin W (2021) Variation law of roof stress and permeability enhancement effect of repeated hydraulic fracturing in low-permeability coal seam. Energy Sci Eng 9:1501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu B, Jin Y, Chen M (2019) Influence of vugs in fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs on hydraulic fracture propagation based on laboratory experiments. J Struct Geol 124:143–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu Y, Cheng Y, Ge Z, Cheng L, Zuo S, Zhong J (2016) Determination of fracture initiation locations during cross-measure drilling for hydraulic fracturing of coal seams. Energies 9(5):358

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mejia Camones LA, Vargas EDA Jr, Velloso RQ, Paulino GH (2018) Simulation of hydraulic fracturing processes in rocks by coupling the lattice Boltzmann model and the Park-Paulino-Roesler potential-based cohesive zone model. Int J Rock Mech Min 112:339–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohnaka M, Mogi K (1982) Frequency-characteristics of acoustic-emission in rocks under uniaxial compression and its relation to the fracturing process to failure. J Geophys Res 87(NB5):3873–3884

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohno K, Ohtsu M (2010) Crack classification in concrete based on acoustic emission. Constr Build Mater 24(12):2339–2346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patel SM, Sondergeld CH, Rai CS (2017) Laboratory studies of hydraulic fracturing by cyclic injection. Int J Rock Mech Min 95:8–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarmadivaleh M, Rasouli V (2015) Test design and sample preparation procedure for experimental investigation of hydraulic fracturing interaction modes. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48(1):93–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shiotani T, Ohtsu M, Ikeda K (2001) Detection and evaluation of AE waves due to rock deformation. Constr Build Mater 15(5–6):235–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stanchits S, Burghardt J, Surdi A (2015) Hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous rock monitored by acoustic emission. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48(6):2513–2527

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang H, Ge M (2008) Acoustic emission/microseismic source location analysis for a limestone mine exhibiting high horizontal stresses. Int J Rock Mech Min 45(5):720–728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Li CH (2017) Investigation of the effect of cemented fractures on fracturing network propagation in model block with discrete orthogonal fractures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(7):1851–1862

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang G, Liu Y, Xu J (2020) Short-term failure mechanism triggered by hydraulic fracturing. Energy Sci Eng 8(3):592–601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao Y, Feng X, Hudson JA, Chen B, Feng G, Liu J (2016) ISRM suggested method for in situ microseismic monitoring of the fracturing process in rock masses. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(1):343–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiong Q, Hampton JC (2021) A laboratory observation on the acoustic emission point cloud caused by hydraulic fracturing, and the post-pressure breakdown hydraulic fracturing re-activation due to nearby Fault. Rock Mech Rock Eng 54:5973

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamamoto K, Naoi M, Chen Y et al (2019) Moment tensor analysis of acoustic emissions induced by laboratory-based hydraulic fracturing in granite. Geophys J Int 216(3):1507–1516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang G, Gutierrez M, Li M (2017) A coupled CFD-DEM approach to model particle-fluid mixture transport between two parallel plates to improve understanding of proppant micromechanics in hydraulic fractures. Powder Technol 308:235–248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang G, Sun S, Chao K et al (2019) Investigation of the nucleation, propagation and coalescence of hydraulic fractures in glutenite reservoirs using a coupled fluid flow-DEM approach. Powder Technol 354:301–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou L, Hou MZ (2013) A New numerical 3D-model for simulation of hydraulic fracturing in consideration of hydro-mechanical coupling effects. Int J Rock Mech Min 60:370–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zou Y, Zhang S, Zhou T, Zhou X, Guo T (2016) Experimental investigation into hydraulic fracture network propagation in gas shales using CT scanning technology. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(1):33–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52074049) and the Independent Research fund of The State Key Laboratory of Mining Response and Disaster Prevention and Control in Deep Coal Mines (Anhui University of Science and Technology) (No. SKLMRDPC19KF07).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Quangui Li.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, Q., Qian, Y., Hu, Q. et al. Acoustic Emission Response Mechanism of Hydraulic Fracturing in Different Coal and Rock: A Laboratory Study. Rock Mech Rock Eng (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-022-02889-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-022-02889-6

Keywords

  • Acoustic emission
  • Hydraulic fracturing
  • Microseismic
  • Bimodal frequency bands