Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 50, Issue 10, pp 2785–2794 | Cite as

Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Under High-Velocity Waterjet Impingement

  • Shouceng Tian
  • Mao Sheng
  • Zhaokun Li
  • Hongkui Ge
  • Gensheng Li
Original Paper


The success of waterjet drilling technology requires further insight into the rock failure mechanisms under waterjet impingement. By combining acoustic emission (AE) sensing and underwater sound recording techniques, an online system for monitoring submerged waterjet drilling has been developed. For four types of sedimentary rocks, their AE characteristics and correlations to the drilling performance have been obtained through time–frequency spectrum analysis. The area under the power spectrum density curve has been used as the indicator of AE energy. The results show that AE signals from the fluid dynamics and the rock failure are in different ranges of signal frequency. The main frequencies of the rock failure are within the higher range of 100–200 kHz, while the frequencies of the fluid dynamics are below 50 kHz. Further, there is a linear relationship between the AE energy and the drilling depth irrespective of rock type. The slope of the linear relationship is proportional to the rock strength and debris size. Furthermore, the AE-specific energy is a good indicator of the critical depth drilled by the waterjet. In conclusion, the AE characteristics on the power density and dominant frequency are capable of identifying the waterjet drilling performance on the rock materials and are correlated with the rock properties, i.e., rock strength and cutting size.


Waterjet Acoustic emission Rock fragmentation Time–frequency analysis 



We would like to thank the KMT Company for sponsoring the Advanced Waterjet Cutting System for educational and academic use in university. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge the comments by the anonymous reviewers, which have helped to improve the manuscript. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51490652) and Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum, Beijing (No. 2462014YJRC048).


  1. Agus M, Bortolussi A, Ciccu R, Kim W, and Manca P. (1993) The influence of rock properties on waterjet performance. In: Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 7th American water jet conference, Seattle, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Axinte D, Kong M (2009) An integrated monitoring method to supervise waterjet machining. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1):303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydin G, Karakurt I, Aydiner K (2013) Prediction of the cut depth of granitic rocks machined by abrasive waterjet (AWJ). Rock Mech Rock Eng 46(5):1223–1235. doi: 10.1007/s00603-012-0307-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crow SC (1974) The effect of porosity on hydraulic rock cutting. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 11(3):103–105. doi: 10.1016/0148-9062(74)91539-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dehkhoda S, Hood M (2013) An experimental study of surface and sub-surface damage in pulsed water-jet breakage of rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 63:138–147. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.08.013 Google Scholar
  6. Fu J, Li G, Shi H, Niu J, Huang Z (2012) A novel tool to improve the rate of penetration–hydraulic-pulsed cavitating-jet generator. SPE Drill Complet 27(03):355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harris HD, Mellor M (1974) Cutting rock with water jets. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 11(9):343–358. doi: 10.1016/0148-9062(74)93098-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hassan AI, Chen C, Kovacevic R (2004) On-line monitoring of depth of cut in AWJ cutting. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44(6):595–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hood M (1985) Waterjet-assisted rock cutting systems—the present state of the art. [journal article]. Int J Min Eng 3(2):91–111. doi: 10.1007/bf00881623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hood M, Nordlund R, Thimons E (1990) A study of rock erosion using high-pressure water jets. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 27(2):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kovacevic R, Kwak H, Mohan R (1998) Acoustic emission sensing as a tool for understanding the mechanisms of abrasive water jet drilling of difficult-to-machine materials. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 212(1):45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kovacevic R, Momber A, Mohen R (2002) Energy dissipation control in hydro-abrasive machining using quantitative acoustic emission. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 20(6):397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li G, Huang Z, Tian S, and Shen Z (2009) Research and application of water jet technology in well completion and stimulation in China. In: Paper presented at the 9th Pacific Rim International Conference on Water Jetting Technology, Fukushima JapanGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu X, Liu S, Ji H (2015) Numerical research on rock breaking performance of water jet based on SPH. Powder Technol 286:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu Y, Wei J, Ren T (2016) Analysis of the stress wave effect during rock breakage by pulsating jets. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(2):503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu Y, Huang F, Liu X, Ao X (2015) On the failure pattern of sandstone impacted by high-velocity water jet. Int J Impact Eng 76:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mohan R, Momber A, and Kovacevic R (1994) On-line monitoring of depth of AWJ penetration using acoustic emission technique (pp. 649–664): Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd., London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  18. Momber A (2000) Concrete failure due to air-water jet impingement. J Mater Sci 35(11):2785–2789. doi: 10.1023/a:1004782716707 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Momber A, Kovacevic R (1998) Principles of abrasive water jet machining. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Momber A, Mohan R, Kovacevic R (1999) On-line analysis of hydro-abrasive erosion of pre-cracked materials by acoustic emission. Theor Appl Fract Mech 31(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Momber A, Mohan R, Kovacevic R (2002) Fracture range detection in hydro-abrasive erosion of concrete. Wear 253(11):1156–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oh T-M, Cho G-C (2016) Rock cutting depth model based on kinetic energy of abrasive waterjet. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(3):1059–1072. doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0778-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rabani A, Marinescu I, Axinte D (2012) Acoustic emission energy transfer rate: a method for monitoring abrasive waterjet milling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 61:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Raghu Prasad BK, Vidya Sagar R (2008) Relationship between AE energy and fracture energy of plain concrete beams: experimental study. J Mater Civ Eng 20(3):212–220. doi: 10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2008)20:3(212) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Welch PD (1967) The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Trans Audio Electroacoust 15(2):70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zeng J, Kim TJ (1996) An erosion model of polycrystalline ceramics in abrasive waterjet cutting. Wear 193(2):207–217. doi: 10.1016/0043-1648(95)06721-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shouceng Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mao Sheng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhaokun Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongkui Ge
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gensheng Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and ProspectingChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina
  2. 2.China College of Petroleum EngineeringChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina
  3. 3.Unconventional Natural Gas InstituteChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations