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Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 419–438 | Cite as

Structure, Mineralogy and Geomechanical Properties of Shear Zones of Deep-Seated Rockslides in Metamorphic Rocks (Tyrol, Austria)

  • Thomas StrauhalEmail author
  • Christian Zangerl
  • Wolfgang Fellin
  • Michael Holzmann
  • Daniela Anna Engl
  • Rainer Brandner
  • Peter Tropper
  • Richard Tessadri
Original Paper

Abstract

Deep-seated rockslides, which are characterised by slow to extremely slow rates of movement, frequently occur in foliated metamorphic rock masses (schists, phyllites, paragneiss series). Many case studies indicate that slope displacement is predominantly localised at basal and internal shear zones. Thus, the deformation and stability behaviour of rockslides is influenced primarily by the properties of these soil-like shear zones. In this study, new findings concerning the structure, mineralogical composition and geomechanical characteristics (residual friction angle, grain size distribution) of the shear zones of deep-seated rockslides are presented. The characteristics of these shear zones are shown by case studies in paragneissic rock masses of the polymetamorphic Austroalpine Ötztal–Stubai crystalline complex in Tyrol, Austria. Differences between the laboratory scale and the in situ scale are discussed, as well as the evolution of the shear zones. Within the framework of this study, structural investigations of the shear zones were performed from surface and subsurface surveys and core logs, as well as mineralogical laboratory analyses, grain size analyses and ring shear tests. The shear zones are characterised by a complex fabric of lensoid-shaped layers of clayey-silty fault gouges embedded in sandy-gravelly fault breccias and block-in-matrix structures. The mineralogical analyses indicated high amounts of phyllosilicates, such as mica and chlorite. Swelling clay minerals were observed in small amounts in very few instances. The ring shear tests of the rockslide fault gouge samples, performed under various normal stress conditions, resulted in residual friction angles in a wide range between 19° and 28°, reached after rather short displacements.

Keywords

Rockslide Foliated metamorphic rock mass Shear zone structure Fault gouge Shear strength Ring shear test 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG for providing samples of the Klasgarten, Hochmais–Atemkopf and Hapmes rockslides. We thank Florian Lehner for collecting and analysing samples no. G2–G4, Christoph Prager for the fruitful discussions, and Stefan Tilg for his help with the soil mechanics laboratory tests. This study is part of the alpS research projects ProMM and AdaptInfra, which are supported and funded by TIWAG, ILF Consulting Engineers, geo.zt and the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (COMET program). The alpS-K1-Centre is supported by Federal Ministries BMVIT and BMWFW and by the states of Tyrol and Vorarlberg within the framework of the Competence Centers for Excellent Technologies (COMET). COMET is processed through FFG (Österreichische Forschungsfördungsgesellschaft). The quality of the manuscript was improved by the constructive comments of the editor, Luca Bonzanigo, and an anonymous reviewer.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Strauhal
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christian Zangerl
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Fellin
    • 4
  • Michael Holzmann
    • 5
  • Daniela Anna Engl
    • 6
  • Rainer Brandner
    • 2
  • Peter Tropper
    • 7
  • Richard Tessadri
    • 7
  1. 1.alpS – Centre for Climate Change AdaptationInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Institute of GeologyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Applied GeologyUniversity of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  4. 4.Division of Geotechnical and Tunnel EngineeringUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  5. 5.TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AGInnsbruckAustria
  6. 6.Geological ServiceAustrian Torrent and Avalanche ControlInnsbruckAustria
  7. 7.Institute of Mineralogy and PetrographyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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