Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 857–875 | Cite as

Response and Stability of Underground Structures in Rock Mass during Earthquakes

  • Ömer Aydan
  • Yoshimi Ohta
  • Melih Geniş
  • Naohiko Tokashiki
  • K. Ohkubo
Original Paper


Underground structures are well known to be earthquake resistant. However, the recent earthquakes showed that underground structures are also vulnerable to seismic damage. There may be several reasons such as high ground motions and permanent ground movements. This study attempts to describe various forms of damage to underground structures such as tunnels, caverns, natural caves and abandoned mines during major earthquakes. Results of various model tests on shaking table are also presented to show the effect of ground shaking on the response and collapse of underground structures in continuum and discontinuum. Furthermore, some empirical equations are proposed to assess the damage to underground structures, which may be useful for quick assessments of possible damage.


Classification Damage Earthquake Fault Ground motions Underground openings 



The authors would like to sincerely thank Emeritus Professor T. Kawamoto of Nagoya University for encouraging the authors to undertake these studies, Dr. H. Komada of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Companies (Japan) for providing information and data on underground powerhouses, Prof. Z. Hasgür of Istanbul Technical University, Prof. R. Ulusay of Hacettepe University, Prof. M. Hamada of Waseda University, Prof. K. Kawashima of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Prof. K. Konagai of Tokyo University, Prof. G. Barla of Politecnico di Torino for joining the authors during many site investigations of worldwide earthquakes since 1992 and former and current undergraduate and graduate students of Aydan’s laboratory in Tokai University for experimental studies in laboratory. The authors would also like to thank Prof. G. Barla for inviting them to contribute to the special issue on rock dynamics.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ömer Aydan
    • 1
  • Yoshimi Ohta
    • 1
  • Melih Geniş
    • 2
  • Naohiko Tokashiki
    • 3
  • K. Ohkubo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Marine Civil EnginrringTokai UniversityShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mining EngineeringZonguldak Karaelmas UniversityZonguldakTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringRyukyu UniversityOkinawaJapan
  4. 4.Nakanihon Expressway CompanyTokyoJapan

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