Intraoperative bleeding from the pelvic venous structures is one of the most serious complications of total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic anatomy of these veins and the potential source of the bleeding in cadaver dissections.
We dissected seven cadavers, focusing on the veins in the surgical resection line for total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy.
The presacral venous plexus and the dorsal vein complex are thin-walled, plexiform, and situated on the line of resection. The internal iliac vein receives blood from the pelvic viscera and the perineal and the gluteal regions and then crosses the line of resection as a high-flow venous system. It has abundant communications with the presacral venous plexus and the dorsal vein complex.
The anatomical features of the presacral venous plexus, the dorsal vein complex, and the internal iliac vein make them highly potential sources of bleeding. Surgical management strategies must consider the anatomy and hemodynamics of these veins carefully to perform this procedure safely.
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Ishii, M., Shimizu, A., Lefor, A.K. et al. Surgical anatomy of the pelvis for total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy: a cadaveric study. Surg Today (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00595-020-02144-x
- Pelvic exenteration
- Iliac vein