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Quantitative evaluation of 3D imaging in laparoscopic surgery



3D images offer true depth perception, which overcomes one of the disadvantages of laparoscopic surgery. We evaluated differences in the use of 3D and 2D images in laparoscopic surgery based on the recording of traces of forceps.


Twelve surgeons at our hospital participated in the study. The task consisted of one suture and three ligations, using a training box. The completion time and number of hold errors were noted, and forceps traces were recorded using the Behavior Checker system (Miura Medical). Participants were divided into two groups based on faster and slower completion times with 2D images.


The median completion time in seconds (s) was significantly shorter when using 3D images than when using 2D images (51 s, range 34–146 vs. 63 s, range 38–265 s; p = 0.013). The 3D/2D completion time ratio was significantly higher in the faster 2D group (0.93 vs. 0.69, p = 0.030) indicating a greater effect of the 3D images on less experienced participants.


A quantitative evaluation showed that using 3D images enables more efficient use of laparoscopic forceps than 2D images. A system with 3D images is of particular benefit for inexperienced surgeons.

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We thank Miura Medical for provision of the Behavior Checker and assistance with data analysis.

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Correspondence to Yuji Nishizawa or Masaaki Ito.

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Instrumentation supported by Miura Medical. Other funding from institutional sources only.

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We have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Matsunaga, R., Nishizawa, Y., Saito, N. et al. Quantitative evaluation of 3D imaging in laparoscopic surgery. Surg Today 47, 440–444 (2017).

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  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • 3-Dimensional image
  • Behavior Checker