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Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves biomarkers of glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 3 months following treatment

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Abstract

Aims

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefits of EECP on glycemic parameters [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial glucose (PPG120), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)] in patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

Thirty subjects (60.7 ± 1.9 years) with T2DM were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either 35 1-h sessions of EECP (n = 20) or time-matched control of standard care (n = 10). FPG, PPG120, and HbA1c were evaluated before and at 48 h, 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months following EECP treatment or time-matched control.

Results

EECP significantly decreased FPG (−14.6 and −12.0 %), PPG120 (−14.6 and −13.5 %), and HbA1c (−11.5 and −19.6 %) 48 h following EECP and 2 weeks following EECP, respectively. HbA1c remained significantly reduced at 3 months following EECP (−14.3 %). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (−31.1 %) and whole-body composite insulin sensitivity index (+54.2 %) were significantly improved 48 h following EECP. Nitrite/nitrate (NO x ) was significantly increased 48 h following EECP (+48.4 %) and 2 weeks (+51.9 %) following EECP treatment.

Conclusions

Our findings provide novel evidence that EECP improves glycemic control in patients with T2DM that persist for up to 3 months following treatment.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank all subjects for their participation and all colleagues for their expertise. We also thank Matt McGee, William Cobb, Tom Adams, and Wojciech Dzieza for their invaluable work as research assistants.

Funding

This research was supported by the Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, and a Grant from Vasomedical Inc., Westbury, NY.

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Correspondence to Paloma D. Sardina.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This study has been reviewed by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Florida and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in an appropriate version of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Human and animal rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Managed by Antonio Secchi.

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Sardina, P.D., Martin, J.S., Avery, J.C. et al. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves biomarkers of glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 3 months following treatment. Acta Diabetol 53, 745–752 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-016-0866-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-016-0866-9

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