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Multifactorial intervention in diabetes care using real-time monitoring and tailored feedback in type 2 diabetes



In 2011, we demonstrated that an individualized health management system employing advanced medical information technology, designated ubiquitous (u)-healthcare, was helpful in achieving glycemic control without hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. Following this, we generated a new multidisciplinary u-healthcare system by upgrading our clinical decision support system (CDSS) rule engine and integrating a physical activity-monitoring device and dietary feedback into a comprehensive package.


In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, patients with type 2 diabetes aged over 60 years were assigned randomly to a self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) group (N = 50) or u-healthcare group (N = 50) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7 % without hypoglycemia. Changes in body composition and lipid profiles were also investigated. The u-healthcare group was educated to use a specially designed glucometer and an activity monitor that automatically transferred test results to a hospital-based server. An automated CDSS rule engine generated and sent patient-specific messages about glucose, diet, and physical activity to their mobile phones and a Web site.


After 6 months of follow-up, the HbA1c level was significantly decreased in the u-healthcare group [8.0 ± 0.7 % (64.2 ± 8.8 mmol/mol) to 7.3 ± 0.9 % (56.7 ± 9.9 mmol/mol)] compared with the SMBG group [8.1 ± 0.8 % (64.9 ± 9.1 mmol/mol) to 7.9 ± 1.2 % (63.2 ± 12.3 mmol/mol)] (P < 0.01). The proportion of patients with HbA1c < 7 % without hypoglycemia was greater in the u-healthcare group (26 %) than in the SMBG group (12 %; P < 0.05). Body fat mass decreased and lipid profiles improved in the u-healthcare group but not in the SMBG group.


This u-healthcare service provided effective management for older patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrial.Gov: NCT01137058).

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This research was supported by the Korea Healthcare technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health, Welfare & Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (A090301). The funding source had no role in the collection of the data or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights disclosure

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the SNUBH institutional review board (see supplemental file for detailed study protocol) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 [25].

Informed consent disclosure

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Correspondence to Hak Chul Jang.

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Managed by Massimo Porta.

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Lim, S., Kang, S.M., Kim, K.M. et al. Multifactorial intervention in diabetes care using real-time monitoring and tailored feedback in type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 53, 189–198 (2016).

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