The Liechtenstein Government, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Swiss Society of Hypertension, the University of Basel, the University Hospital Basel, the Hanela Foundation, Schiller AG and Novartis supported the GAPP study. David Conen was supported by a grant of the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P3_133681). Insulin was measured free of charge by Singulex, Alameda, CA 94502, USA.
Conflict of interest
Jonas Blum, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Tobias Schoen, Matthias Bossard, Katrin Pumpol, Noé Brasier, Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, and David Conen declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights disclosure
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, as revised in 2008.
Informed consent disclosure
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.