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Recommendations for self-monitoring in pediatric diabetes: a consensus statement by the ISPED

Abstract

A panel of experts of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology comprehensively discussed and approved the Italian recommendations regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose, continuous glucose monitoring and other measures of glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. After an extensive review of the literature, we took these issues into account: self-monitoring blood glucose, continuous glucose monitoring, glycemic variability, glycosuria, ketonuria, ketonemia, glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine and glycated albumin, logbook, data downloading, lancing devices, carbohydrate counting, and glycemic measurements at school. We concluded that clinical guidelines on self-management should be developed in every country with faithful adaptation to local languages and taking into account specific contexts and local peculiarities, without any substantial modifications to the international recommendations. We believe that the National Health Service should provide all necessary resources to ensure self-monitoring of blood glucose and possibly continuous glucose monitoring of all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, according to the standards of care provided by these recommendations and internationally.

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Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any conflict of interest to disclose regarding the preparation and writing of the recommendations included in the present paper. Other disclosures, however, are as follows. A.S. received a consulting fee for membership of a steering committee from Medtronic, a speaking fee from Abbott and a research grant from Menarini. V.C. received a consulting fee from Eli Lilly, Sanofi and Menarini. St.T. received a consulting fee as Principal Investigator from Roche and a consulting fee for board membership from Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly and Lifescan. R.B. received a consulting fee from Medtronic, Roche, the Movi Group (Animas) and Sanofi. P.B. received a consulting fee from Roche and Sanofi. Francesca Cardella received a consulting fee from Roche and Sanofi. G.d.A. is a member of the Bayer Advisory Board. A.P.F. received consulting fee from Sanofi. F.L. received a consulting fee from Roche and Sanofi. I.R. received a consulting and speaking fee from Roche and Lifescan and a consulting fee from Eli Lilly. R.S. received a consulting fee from Roche and Sanofi. So.T. received consulting fee from Sanofi. S.Z. received a speaking fee from Roche and a consulting fee from Eli Lilly and Sanofi. D.I. received consulting fee from Sanofi. A.C.M.M. and G.F. do not have any conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Andrea Scaramuzza.

Additional information

Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology members are given in “Appendix”.

Communicated by Massimo Porta.

Appendix: Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology

Appendix: Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology

Claudia Arnaldi, Viterbo; Patrizia Banin, Ferrara; Fabrizio Barbetti, Rome; Luciano Beccaria, Lecco; Marzia Benelli, Lecce; Rosario Berardi, Siena; Martina Biagioni, Ancona; Giuliana Bianchi, Varese; Carla Bizzarri, Rome; Annalisa Blasetti, Chieti; Adriana Bobbio, Aosta; Stefano Boccato, Treviso; Riccardo Bonfanti, Milan, Franco Bontempi, Mantua; Mariella Bruzzese, Locri; Pietro Buono, Università Federico II, Naples; Francesco Cadario, Novara; Valeria Calcaterra, Pavia; Alessandra Cannatà, Polistena (RC); Marco Cappa, Rome; Roberta Cardani, Varese; Francesca Cardella, Palermo; Giuliana Marcella Cardinale, Casarano (LE); Ines Carloni, Ancona; Vincenzo Castaldo, Caserta; Vittoria Cauvin, Trento; Franco Cerutti, Turin; Anna Maria Cester, Ancona; Valentino Cherubini, Ancona; Margherita Chessa, Cagliari, Francesco Chiarelli, Chieti; Giovanni Chiari, Parma; Giuseppe Chiumello, Milan; Mario Cicchetti, Campobasso; Dante Cirillo, Magenta; Felice Citriniti, Catanzaro; Giuseppe Citro, Potenza; Maria Susanna Coccioli, Francavilla; Mario Cotellessa, Sanremo/Imperia; Antonino Crinò, Rome; Giuseppe d’Annunzio, Genoa; Fiorella De Berardinis, Fuscaldo; Gianpaolo De Filippo, Benevento; Giovanni De Giorgi, Perugia; Filippo De Luca, Messina; Rosaria De Marco, Cosenza; Maurizio Delvecchio, San Giovanni Rotondo; Elena Faleschini, Trieste; Giovanni Federico, Pisa; Anna Rita Fifi, Arezzo; Franco Fontana, Tortona (AL); Adriana Franzese, Università Federico II, Naples; Elda Frezza, Bari; Annapaola Frongia, Cagliari; Giulio Frontino, Milan; Alberto Gaiero, Savona; Alfonso Galderisi, Padua; Francesco Gallo, Brindisi; Luigi Gargantini, Treviglio (BG); Silvia Ghione, Varese; Chiara Giorgetti, Ancona; Antonella Gualtieri, Avezzano (AQ); Monica Guasti, Firenze; Lucia Guerraggio, Tradate (VA); Dario Iafusco, Seconda Università, Naples; Antonio Iannilli, Ancona; Dario Ingletto, Tricase (LE); Carmine Iossa, Caserta; Brunella Iovene, Parma; Lorenzo Iughetti, Modena; Peter Kaufmann, Bolzano; Alfonso La Loggia, Caltanissetta; Nicola Lazzaro, Crotone; Lorenzo Lenzi, Florence; Riccardo Lera, Alessandria; Rosanna Lia, Roccella Jonica (RC); Donatella Lo Presti, Catania; Fortunato Lombardo, Messina; Renata Lorini, Genoa; Sonia Lucchesi, Livorno; Sergio Luceri, Castrovillari (CS); Simona Filomena Madeo, Modena; Claudio Maffeis, Verona; Benedetta Mainetti, Forlì; Francesco Mammi, Locri; Maria Luisa Manca Bitti, Rome; Marco Marigliano, Verona; Alessandra Marinari, Foggia; Anna Maria Marinaro, Sassari; Gianfranco Meloni, Sassari; Alberto Marsciani, Rimini; Lisa Mastrangelo, Foggia; Costanzo Mastrangelo, Foggia; Franco Meschi, Milan; Domenico Minasi, Polistena (RC); Adelaide Minenna, San Giovanni Rotondo (BA); Nicola Minuto, Genoa; Carlamaria Monciotti, Padua; Gianfranco Morganti, Busto Arsizio (VA); Enza Mozzillo, Naples; Rosa Nugnes, Università Federico II, Naples; Emanuela Paradiso, Pinerolo (TO); Daniela Pardi, Massa Carrara; Bruno Pasquino, Bolzano; Ippolita Patrizia Patera, Rome; Cristina Pennati, Treviglio (BG); Rossella Pepe, Florence; Barbara Piccini, Florence; Angelo Perrotta, Campobasso; Elvira Piccinno, Bari; Leonardo Pinelli, Verona; Gavina Piredda, Olbia; Mauro Pocecco, Cesena; Giuseppe Ponzi, Casarano (LE); Elena Prandi, Brescia; Barbara Predieri, Modena; Francesco Prisco, Naples; Maria Quinci, Mazara del Vallo (TP); Ivana Rabbone, Turin; Maria Rossella Ricciardi, Cagliari; Andrea Rigamonti, Milan; Carlo Ripoli, Cagliari; Alberto Sabbion, Verona; Silvana Salardi, Bologna; Alessandro Salvatoni, Varese; Caterina Salvo, Palermo; Giuseppina Salzano, Messina; Anna Saporiti, Varese; Rita Sardi, Lucca; Andrea Scaramuzza, Milan; Riccardo Schiaffini, Rome; Eleonardo Schieven, Vicenza; Mirella Scipione, Bologna; Cristina Soci, Grosseto; Miriam Soro, Oristano; Luisa Spallino, Como; Filomena Stamati, Castrovillari (CS); Tosca Suprani, Cesena; Silvia Savastio, Novara; Rosa Anna Taccardi, Matera; Luis Tarchini, Ravenna; Letizia Tomaselli, Catania; Sonia Toni, Florence; Giorgio Tonini, Trieste; Cataldo Torelli, Bari; Gianluca Tornese, Trieste; Michela Trada, Sanremo/Imperia; Stefano Tumini, Chieti; Giuliana Valerio, Università Parthenope, Naples; Maurizio Vanelli, Parma; Roberto Vanini, Erba; Marina Vascotto, Siena; Amedeo Vergerio, Feltre; Matteo Viscardi, Milan; Silvana Zaffani, Verona; Maria Zampolli, Como; Manuela Zanatta, Udine; Giorgio Zanette, Pordenone; Angela Zanfardino, Seconda Università, Naples; Clara Zecchino, Bari; Maria Antonietta Zedda, Cagliari; Stefano Zucchini, Bologna; Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Milan.

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Scaramuzza, A., Cherubini, V., Tumini, S. et al. Recommendations for self-monitoring in pediatric diabetes: a consensus statement by the ISPED. Acta Diabetol 51, 173–184 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-013-0521-7

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Keywords

  • Children
  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • Glycemic variability
  • Self-monitoring blood glucose
  • Self-management
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus