Intercalary reconstructions after bone tumor resections: a review of treatments

  • Georgios N. Panagopoulos
  • Andreas F. MavrogenisEmail author
  • Cyril Mauffrey
  • Jan Lesenský
  • Andrea Angelini
  • Panayiotis D. Megaloikonomos
  • Vasilios G. Igoumenou
  • John Papanastassiou
  • Olga Savvidou
  • Pietro Ruggieri
  • Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos
General Review • TUMORS - BONE DEFECT


An intercalary reconstruction is defined as replacement of the diaphyseal portion of a long bone after segmental skeletal resection (diaphysectomy). Intercalary reconstructions typically result in superior function compared to other limb-sparing procedures as the patient’s native joints above and below the reconstruction are left undisturbed. The most popular reconstructive options after segmental resection of a bone sarcoma include allografts, vascularized fibula graft, combined allograft and vascularized fibula, segmental endoprostheses, extracorporeal devitalized autograft, and segmental transport using the principles of distraction osteogenesis. This article aims to review the indications, techniques, limitations, pros and cons, and complications of the aforementioned methods of intercalary bone tumor resections and reconstructions in the context of the ever-growing, brave new field of limb-salvage surgery.


Intercalary defects Bone tumors Allograft Vascularized fibular graft Endoprosthesis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgios N. Panagopoulos
    • 1
  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cyril Mauffrey
    • 4
  • Jan Lesenský
    • 2
  • Andrea Angelini
    • 5
  • Panayiotis D. Megaloikonomos
    • 1
  • Vasilios G. Igoumenou
    • 1
  • John Papanastassiou
    • 3
  • Olga Savvidou
    • 1
  • Pietro Ruggieri
    • 5
  • Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.First Department of OrthopaedicsNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of MedicineAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedics, First Medical FacultyPrague Teaching Hospital, Charles UniversityBulovka, PragueCzechia
  3. 3.Department of OrthopaedicsAgioi Anargyroi HospitalAthensGreece
  4. 4.Department of OrthopaedicsDenver Health Medical CenterDenverUSA
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal OncologyUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

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