Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity

  • Niall A. Smyth
  • Amiethab A. Aiyer
  • Jonathan R. Kaplan
  • Clayton A. Carmody
  • Anish R. KadakiaEmail author
General Review • ANKLE - FOOT


Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a known and recognized cause of pain and disability. Loss of PTT function is the most important contributor to AAFD, and its estimated prevalence is thought to be over 3%. This review aims to summarize the current literature and encompass recent advances regarding AAFD.


Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction Flatfoot Staging 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

ARK has received royalties and speaking fees from Accumed, royalties from Depuy, and consulting fees from Arthrex. JRK and AAA have received consulting fees from Paragon 28 and Medline. NAS and CAC have no conflicts of interest to report.


There was no funding involved in this study.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niall A. Smyth
    • 1
  • Amiethab A. Aiyer
    • 1
  • Jonathan R. Kaplan
    • 2
  • Clayton A. Carmody
    • 1
  • Anish R. Kadakia
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Orthopaedic Specialty InstituteOrangeUSA
  3. 3.Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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