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Spinal fusions: bone and bone substitutes


Vertebral arthrodesis is one of the most commonly performed, yet incompletely understood, procedures in spinal surgery. Despite major progress in internal fixation techniques, the high rate of non-unions indicates that physiologic, biologic and molecular events that are crucial to this process are not well known. This article will analyze the general biology of bone regeneration, and particularly discuss the properties and use of various bone graft materials and graft substitutes.

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Received: 9 August 2000/Accepted: 11 August 2000

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Marchesi, D. Spinal fusions: bone and bone substitutes. E Spine J 9, 372–378 (2000).

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  • Key words Bone regeneration
  • Spinal fusion
  • Bone substitutes
  • Growth factors