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Changes in the centre of rotation and the anterior bone loss of the vertebral body in Mobi-C artificial disc replacement segments after cervical hybrid surgery: a retrospective study

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To examine the short-term efficacy and imaging results of using the Mobi-C in cervical hybrid surgery on 2-level cervical spondylolisthesis. To observe post-operative changes in the flexion–extension centre of rotation (FE-COR) and anterior bone loss (ABL) of the anterior cervical disc replacement (ACDR) segment.


Forty-two patients (20 males and 22 females, aged 42‒67 years) who underwent cervical hybrid surgery were retrospectively analysed. Their ACDR segment used Mobi-C, and the fusion segment used ROI-C, with a follow-up of 25‒42 months (31.1 ± 4.8 months). The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to assess clinical outcomes. Pre-operative, 6-month post-operative, and final follow-up radiographs were collected to compare total cervical spine curvature (C2–C7), curvature of the operated segments, range of motion (ROM) in the total cervical spine, operated segmental ROM, ACDR segmental ROM, and operated adjacent segmental ROM. The height of the superior articular process (HSAP), the orientation of zygapophyseal joint spaces (OZJS), and the length of the superior articular surface (LSAS) were measured. The FE-COR of the ACDR segment was measured using the mid-plumb line method. The translation distance of the Mobi-C was measured. The degree of disc degeneration in the adjacent segment, bony fusion of the ACDF segment, and ABL of the upper and lower vertebra of the ACDR segment were observed.


In our group, all patients have shown improvements in their postoperative mJOA, NDI, and VAS scores. Overall cervical ROM and surgical segmental ROM decreased (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant decrease in ACDR segmental ROM and upper or lower adjacent segmental ROM compared with pre-operatively (P > 0.05). For FE-COR-X, only the last follow-up compared with pre-surgery showed statistical significance (46.74 ± 7.71% vs. 50.74 ± 6.92%, P < 0.05). For FE-COR-Y, the change was statistically significant at both 6 months post-operation and the final follow-up compared to pre-operation (45.37% ± 21.11% vs. 33.82% ± 10.87%, 45. 37% ± 21.11% vs. 27.48% ± 13.58%, P < 0.05). No significant difference in the Mobi-C translation distance was observed (P > 0.05). Moreover, the difference in HSAP was not statistically significant at each node (P > 0.05). The OZJS and LSAS were significantly different at the final follow-up compared to the pre-operative period (P < 0.05). All the ACDF segments were observed in a stable condition at the final follow-up. Furthermore, 9 of the adjacent segments showed imaging ASD (9/82, 10.98%), and all were present at the last follow-up, of which 6 were mild, and 3 were moderate. Twenty of the 42 Mobi-C segments had no significant ABL (grade 0) 6 months post-operatively (47.62%). Sixteen cases (38.10%) showed mild ABL (grade 1), and 6 cases (14.28%) showed moderate ABL (grade 2). No severe ABL occurred.


The cervical hybrid surgery using Mobi-C artificial cervical discs can achieve satisfactory results. The Mobi-C segmental FE-COR-X shows a slow forward shift trend, and FE-COR-Y drops noticeably within 6 months post-surgery before stabilizing. It’s common to see mild to moderate ABL after cervical hybrid surgery using Mobi-C, and significant progression is unlikely in the short term. Furthermore, changes in the FE-COR after hybrid surgery in the Mobi-C segment might not affect clinical outcomes.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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The authors thank AiMi Academic Services ( for English language editing and review services.


In this paper, the research is sponsored by the Horizontal Subject “effect of biomimetic mineralized collagen artificial bone in the treatment of spinal diseases and fractures”.

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XY contributed to the research and design of this article. YM contributed to the first draft of the article. CL, YX, HZ, YY, DZ, FW, YQ, JY, LB, XY carried out literature search, quality evaluation, data collection and analysis. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Xing Yu.

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Ma, Y., Yu, X., Li, C. et al. Changes in the centre of rotation and the anterior bone loss of the vertebral body in Mobi-C artificial disc replacement segments after cervical hybrid surgery: a retrospective study. Eur Spine J 33, 1265–1274 (2024).

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