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Global alignment taking into account the cervical spine with odontoid hip axis angle (OD-HA)

Abstract

Introduction

Global alignment analysis is of upmost importance in adult spinal deformity patients (ASD). Numerous parameters exist in the literature to measure global alignment based upon C7 or T1. One common limitation of these parameters is that they neglect the cervical segment which is essential in spinal compensatory mechanisms and in horizontal gaze preservation. A recent stereoradiography analysis of asymptomatic subjects introduced a new 3D parameter (ODHA), defined as the angle between the vertical reference line and the line joining the odontoid tip (OD) to hip axis center (HA). Thus, the goal of this study was to analyze 3D global alignment of ASD patients using the new parameter odontoid hip axis angle and its relationship to other spinal parameters.

Methods

In this prospective study, 90 adult patients with lumbar scoliosis (Cobb > 20°) were included. All subjects underwent low dose biplanar X-rays with 3D spinal reconstructions. Based on published normative values of ODHA, we defined abnormally high value as mean ODHA of asymptomatic subject + 2SD (i.e., ODHA > 6.1°). Values of 3D radiographic parameters and ODI were compared between patients with ODHA > 6.1° and < 6.1°.

Results

Mean ODHA was 5+/− 3.6° (0.4° to 18.6°). 22 patients had abnormally high ODHA. They were older than the 68 other patients (68+/− 9y vs 53+/− 14y, p = 0.001), without any significant difference in terms of sex, BMI and rate of rotatory subluxation (54% vs 62%, p = 0.06). However, coronal and sagittal deformity was more important in patients with abnormal ODHA (larger Cobb angle, coronal malalignment, pelvic tilt and lower lumbar lordosis). Patients with abnormal ODHA had significantly worst ODI (50+/− 23 vs 30+/− 18, p = 0.0005).

Conclusion

Extreme values of ODHA are observed in significantly older patients with significant functional impairment. In addition, in these patients with sagittal malalignment with loss of lumbar lordosis, who recruit compensatory mechanisms such as pelvic retroversion, the cervical area is also involved with a posture in cervical hyperlordosis to maintain the head over the pelvis. Thus, ODHA is an interesting parameter allowing a more comprehensive alignment measurement taking into account the mechanisms of compensation of the cervical spine to the pelvis.

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Correspondence to Emmanuelle Ferrero.

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Ferrero, E., Guigui, P., Khalifé, M. et al. Global alignment taking into account the cervical spine with odontoid hip axis angle (OD-HA). Eur Spine J 30, 3647–3655 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06991-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06991-1

Keywords

  • Sagittal alignment
  • Spinal balance
  • Odontoid
  • Stereoradiography
  • Spino-pelvic parameters