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Table 3 Association of age categories and an injury to surgery time ≤ 12 h with AIS conversion from multiple binary logistic regression models

From: Association of age with the timing of acute spine surgery–effects on neurological outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury

Total sample (n = 191)
Covariates Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age group 0.158
 ≤ 44y (ref) 1
45-59y 0.27 (0.09–0.85) 0.024
60-74y 0.54 (0.18–1.6) 0.264
 ≥ 75y 0.44 (0.12–1.64) 0.221
Gender (male, ref: female) 1.49 (0.61–3.63) 0.383
CCI (per one point increase) 0.83 (0.62–1.11) 0.205
AIS admission  > 0.001
AIS D (ref) 1
AIS C 6.35 (1.77–22.81) 0.005
AIS B 4.02 (0.83–19.43) 0.083
AIS A 0.42 (0.18–1.01) 0.052
NLI admission (cervical, ref: thoracolumbar) 2.95 (1.23–7.06) 0.015
TBI (yes, ref: no) 0.56 (0.22–1.45) 0.231
Surgery within 12 h post injury (yes, ref: no) 4.22 (1.85–9.65) 0.001
Enrollment period (retrospective, ref: prospective) 0.47 (0.22–1.04) 0.062
  Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.39
AIS A (n = 81)
Covariates Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age group 0.539
 ≤ 44y (ref) 1
45-59y 1.25 (0.13–11.84) 0.844
60-74y 1.84 (0.31–10.87) 0.499
 ≥ 75y 7.16 (0.47–108.2) 0.155
Gender (male, ref: female) 2.56 (0.38–17.4) 0.337
CCI (per one point increase) 0.51 (0.24–1.08) 0.079
NLI admission (cervical, ref: thoracolumbar) 12.74 (2.12–76.72) 0.005
TBI (yes, ref: no) 0.26 (0.04–1.72) 0.161
Surgery within 12 h post injury (yes, ref: no) 5.56 (0.98–31.63) 0.053
Enrollment period (retrospective, ref: prospective) 1.53 (0.33–7.13) 0.586
  Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.42
AIS B–D (n = 110)
Covariates Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age group 0.014
 ≤ 44y (ref) 1
45-59y 0.09 (0.02–0.44) 0.003
60-74y 0.12 (0.02–0.67) 0.016
 ≥ 75y 0.10 (0.02–0.61) 0.013
Gender (male, ref: female) 2.91 (0.86–9.91) 0.087
CCI (per one point increase) 0.92 (0.64–1.32) 0.634
AIS admission 0.002
AIS D (ref) 1
AIS C 13.24 (2.93–59.86) 0.001
AIS B 4.05 (0.77–21.37) 0.100
NLI admission (cervical, ref: thoracolumbar) 1.74 (0.72–5.84) 0.369
TBI (yes, ref: no) 0.58 (0.15–2.18) 0.421
Surgery within 12 h post injury (yes, ref: no) 3.00 (1.02–8.88) 0.047
Enrollment period (retrospective, ref: prospective) 0.17 (0.05–0.56) 0.004
  Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.5
  1. Multiple binary logistic regression models with AIS conversion until discharge as dependent variable in the total sample (top) and stratified for severity of SCI into complete SCI patients AIS A (middle) and incomplete SCI patients AIS B–D (bottom). Coding of the dependent variable AIS conversion (no = 0, yes = 1). Abbreviations: AIS = ASIA Impairment Scale, CCI = Charlson comorbidity index, NLI = neurological level of injury, SCI = spinal cord injury, TBI = traumatic brain injury