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The Impact of Corrective Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Subclasses in Adult Scoliosis: Will Degree of Correction Prognosticate Degree of Improvement?

Abstract

Purpose

Objectives in scoliosis corrective surgery include restoration of normal sagittal and coronal parameters to achieve patient satisfaction. HRQLs improvements remain limited after corrective surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HRQL subclass variability specific to the sagittal and coronal correction in adult scoliosis surgery.

Methods

This multi-centre prospective analysis of consecutive adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients, from five European centres, only included multilevel instrumentation for scoliosis. d-(delta) values for each parameter represented pre to post-operative changes. Parameters included demographics, baseline, 1- and 2-year. HRQL outcomes (Oswestry disability index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and Short Form (SF36)), sagittal correction including relative spinopelvic alignment (dRSA) and coronal correction including major Cobb (dCobb) angles.

Results

A total of 353 patients reached 1-year and 2-year follow up. All HRQL total scores significantly improved postoperatively, including ODI, SRS-22 and SF36. HRQL subclasses which displayed persistent improvements correlated to dRSA included sex-life, self-image, fatigue, vitality, social functioning. The only HRQL subclass improvement that correlated with dCobb was self-image.

Conclusion

Adult scoliosis surgery improves overall HRQL, having a minimal effect on each variable. Importantly, greater coronal deformity correction affects only greater self-image scores, whereas with greater sagittal correction there are many greater HRQL sub-class impacts. Correction and restoration of coronal balance is one of the surgical goals in adult scoliosis but the degree to which Cobb angle is corrected, apart from self-image, does not correlate with gains in sub-classes of HRQL. These results need to be taken into account when planning surgery.

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Abbreviations

ASD:

Adult spinal deformity

BMI:

Indicates body mass index

COMI:

Core Outcome Measures Index

GT:

Global tilt; LL, lumbar lordosis

MCS:

Mental Component Summary

ODI:

Oswestry Disability Index

PCS:

Physical Component Summary

PI:

Pelvic incidence

PT:

Pelvic tilt

SF36:

Short Form 36

SRS-22:

Scoliosis Research Society 22-question Questionnaire

SVA:

Sagittal vertical axis

PI-LL:

Pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis

RSA:

Relative spinopelvic alignment

BMI:

Body mass index

SVA:

Sagittal vertical axis

TK:

Thoracic kyphosis

PT:

Pelvic tilt

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Correspondence to D. T. Cawley.

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Cawley, D.T., Takemoto, M., Boissiere, L. et al. The Impact of Corrective Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Subclasses in Adult Scoliosis: Will Degree of Correction Prognosticate Degree of Improvement?. Eur Spine J 30, 2033–2039 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06786-4

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Keywords

  • Adult spinal deformity
  • Scoliosis
  • Health related quality of life
  • Coronal
  • Deformity correction