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Risk factors for postoperative residual back pain after percutaneous kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

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To determine the incidence of and risk factors for residual back pain in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) patients after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) treatment, we performed a retrospective analysis of prospective data.


Patients who underwent bilateral PKP and met this study’s inclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Back pain intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) after surgery. Residual back pain was defined as the presence of postoperative moderate-severe pain (average VAS score ≥ 4), and the variables included patient characteristics, baseline symptoms, radiological parameters and surgical factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors.


A total of 809 patients were included, and residual back pain was identified in 63 (7.8%) patients. Of these patients, 52 patients had complete data for further analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors for back pain included the presence of an intravertebral vacuum cleft (OR 2.93, P = 0.032), posterior fascia oedema (OR 4.11, P = 0.014), facet joint violations (OR 12.19, P < 0.001) and a separated cement distribution (OR 2.23, P = 0.043).


The incidence of postoperative residual back pain was 7.8% among 809 OVCF patients following PKP. The presence of an intravertebral vacuum cleft, posterior fascia oedema, facet joint violations and a separated cement distribution were identified as independent risk factors for residual back pain.

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This work was supported by grants from the Zhejiang Public Service Technology Research Program and Social Development (LGF18H060008).

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Correspondence to Yaosen Wu or Xiangyang Wang.

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Li, Y., Yue, J., Huang, M. et al. Risk factors for postoperative residual back pain after percutaneous kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Eur Spine J 29, 2568–2575 (2020).

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